Anthropology: Ch. 2
Terms in this set (47)
that physical traits were passed down from each parent and then blended together in the offspring.
Like most of his contemporaries, Charles Darwin believed
What decreases the number of genetic differences between populations?
Among the first scientists to conceive of evolutionary change was
Alfred Russel Wallace.
The English scientist who independently codiscovered the theory of natural selection was
were physical traits that enhanced survival and reproduction.
Darwin observed that adaptations
it is the spread of new genetic material from one gene pool to another.
Gene flow differs from genetic drift because
________ is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations.
All of the following are formal taxonomic categories except
Catastrophism is the idea that geologic changes are the result of single cataclysmic events.
How is the concept of catastrophism different from the concept of uniformitarianism?
Francis Crick, James Watson, & Rosalind Franklin
Whose efforts helped explain how chromosomes are replicated?
He was an English naturalist who had arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin
Why is the work of Alfred Russel Wallace considered when discussing the theory of evolution?
binomial nomenclature, which was developed by Carolus Linnaeus as a classification system for plants and animals.
While at the gorilla exhibit at the zoo you notice that the sign reads Gorilla gorilla gorilla. You recall that this is a scientific name and is part of a naming system known as
the HMS Beagle
Darwin was a crew member on ________ , a ship whose voyage informed his later theory of natural selection.
Darwin's theory of evolution drew from all of the following scientific disciplines except
In your textbook, the lesser frequency of sickle-cell anemia among present day American blacks as compared to West African blacks is attributed to
Organisms classified as two different species can still belong to the same genus.
Which of the following is true?
Thomas Hunt Morgan.
The geneticist who studied the workings of fruit flies' chromosomes was
The Human Genome Project (a massive collaboration to decode and study the human genome) is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease?
They are closely related species that have branched from one species.
How do Darwin's finches demonstrate the concept of adaptive radiation?
The English demographer whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin's thinking was
Thomas Henry Huxley
Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection was supported by which leading scientist of the time?
Cuvier's work on fossil elephants in France supported the then controversial notion of
works on preexisting variation in a population.
According to Darwin, natural selection operates at the level of
James Hutton is associated with
Individuals in populations show little or no variation.
Which of the following is false regarding populations of living organisms?
The individual genotypes in a breeding population, taken as a whole, are the
What is the only source of new genetic material?
Darwin was influenced by Malthus's work on demography and population responses to food availability.
How was Darwin influenced by Thomas Malthus's work on population growth?
The physical expression of an organism's genetic constitution is called its
is the "recipe" for all biological characteristics and functions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
all forms were thought to have been created by God and to remain constant over time
You're watching a show on TV about the history of scientific thought in Europe prior to 1800. The narrator correctly states that at that time
The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomic group (primates) was
The only possible source of new genetic material is
He did not but instead proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as inheritance of acquired characteristics.
How did Lamarck contribute to the theory of evolution?
demonstrated that chromosomes carry genetic material in the form of genes.
Thomas Hunt Morgan
each species has a "higher level" genus and "lower level" species.
Linnaeus's taxonomic system is referred to as a "hierarchy" because
Mendel's discrete units responsible for the characteristics in his pea plants are now known as
it synthesized information from diverse scientific fields in order to document evolutionary change.
Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species (1859) was considered an important contribution to modern science because
By the mid-twentieth century, the causes of evolution were seen as all of the following excep
traits inherited from each parent remained distinct in the offspring
Mendel's plant hybridization experiments demonstrated that
accepted Darwin's theory of evolution and Mendel's theory of heredity as explaining most evolutionary change.
The evolutionary synthesis
They embody the idea of descent with modification.
Why are Darwin's finches considered good examples of natural selection?
Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are
The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was
from both parents.
Recessive alleles will be expressed if they are inherited
millions of years old.
James Hutton's research in the mid-18th century demonstrated that the earth was