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Topic #12: Liquids and Solids
Terms in this set (50)
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter
Are in constant motion
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, gases condense into liquids because of
Forces between molecules
An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas
That conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory
Unlike in the ideal gas, in a real gas
The particles exert attractive forces on each other
A real gas
Does not obey all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which is the most significant difference between gases and liquids?
The distance between the particles
What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?
Which is an example of gas diffusion?
Inflating a flat tire, the odor of perfume spreading throughout the room, & a cylinder of oxygen stored under high pressure
By which process do gases take the shape of their container?
Which substance has the lowest density?
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, how does a gas expand?
Its particles move greater distances
Which is an example of effusion?
Air slowly escaping from a pinhole in a tire
What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container?
Under which conditions do real gases most resemble ideal gases?
Low pressure & high temperature
Which gases behave most like an ideal gas?
Gases near their condensation temperatures
The intermolecular forces between particles in a liquid can involve all of the following except
The intermolecular forces between particles are
Stronger in liquids than in gases
The particles in a liquid are usually
Closer together & lower in energy than those in a solid
Which best describes vaporization?
The process by which a liquid changes to a gas & a solid changes into gas
Which term best describes the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid & enter the gas state?
Which of the following causes particles in a liquid to escape into a gas state?
High kinetic energy
Which of these can happen due to decreasing the average energy of a liquid's particles?
Particles within a solid
Vibrate about fixed positions
Forces holding particles together are strongest in a
The compressibility of solids are generally
Lower than the compressibility of liquids & gases
The rate of diffusion in solids is very low because the
Particles aren't free to move about
Which of the following properties do solids share with liquids?
Which causes the high density of solids?
The particles are packed closely together
Compared with a crystalline solid, the particles in an amorphous solid
Occur in a random pattern
Which of the following is an amorphous solid?
Which substance's solid state consists of covalent molecular crystals?
Which type of crystal constants of positive metal cations surrounded by valence electrons that are donated by the metal atoms and belong to the crystal as a whole?
What is the three-dimensional array of points that describes the arrangement of the particles of a crystal called?
If the rate of evaporation from the surface of a liquid exceeds the rate of condensation,
The concentration of the vapor is increasing
If the temperature and surface area of a liquid remain constant,
The rate of evaporation remains constant
Molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if
Their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in the liquid
When does the concentration of a vapor decrease?
When the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation
When energy as heat is applied to a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium, a new equilibrium state will have
A higher percentage of vapor
As its triple point, water can
Exist in equilibrium in three different phases
Above critical temperature, a substance
Cannot exist in the liquid state
What is the critical pressure?
The lowest pressure under which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature
What is the most volatile substance?
The equilibrium vapor pressure of water is
Specific for any given temperature
The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid increases with increasing temperature because
The average energy of the particles in the liquid increases
What is the process of a substance changing from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid phase?
At pressures greater than 1 atm, water will boil at
A temperature higher than 100°C
Why would a camper near the top of Mt. Everest find that water boils at less than 100°C?
There is less atmospheric pressure than at sea level
Glycerol boils at a slighty higher temperature than water. This reveals that glycerol's attractive forces are
Stronger than those of water
During boiling, the temperature of a liquid
Why doesn't water in lakes and ponds of temperate climates freeze solid during the winter & kill nearly all the living things it contains?
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