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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 20 History Test
Terms in this set (62)
Gross National Product
The industrial needs grow to supply weapons to neighboring countries and the need for workers grows.
Why does unemployment drop dramatically?
2x German Workers, 5x Japanese Workers
The United States production at the start of the war
Cost plus project
The cost of making goods/product plus a percentage of the profits
The car industry
Which industry produced about 33% of all military equipment?
Went from cars to tanks and other new military supllies
Changes in war priorities
Liberty and Victory ships
Basic cargo ships with new improvements such as they were welded and no longer riveted.
War production board (WPB)
Organized shift of the economy to wartime production
Selected Service and Training Act
This was a draft in which most recruits were not prepared and which included 8 weeks of basic training.
Segregated units, separate facilities, executive order prohibiting discrimination in war industries.
What challenges did African Americans face during this lifetime
Double V Campaign
Encouraged African American people to join and fight, it would be a victory over both Hitlers racism and racism back home in the United States
First all Africa American unit and were one of the best units that helped mostly in Italy, many receiving silver stars, bronze stars, and Purple Hearts.
Killed in action
What does the Purple Heart signify?
What workers were needed after the men when off to war?
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war. Inspire administrative and clerical jobs along with nurses, and to release more
Men for combat because the women got this.
Basically a floating city/fortress, carrying troops, aircraft, and supplies.
Why are aircraft carriers important?
General Chester Nimitz
Commander of Navy in Pacific during Pearl Harbor
The fall of the Philippines
General Douglas Mac Arthur
-after Pearl Harbor the Japanese landed troops on the the Philippines and pushed Americans an Filipinos off, and forced about 78,000 to surrender, which led to Bataan death march.
The Doolittle Raids
We hit the Japanese in several places and although it didn't do much, we proved that we could hit them if we wanted to.
Battle of Coral Sea
Japan takes most of SE Asia piece by piece and island by island until mid 1942 when the U.S broke the Japanese code and they did not know which led to
Battle of coral sea
Fought in the air (carrier based planes), U.S launches surprise attack on Japanese and takes out a large chunk of their troops, huge victory for U.S, but victory is still a long way off.
Only taking islands that were necessary to get into range and save lives and get close enough to launch bombers on the Japanese mainland.
Battle of Midway Island
Because the U.S broke the Japanese Code and the Hapanse still didn't know, they launched a surprise attack on the Japanese, but both sides suffered heavy losses. Even though there was a heavy loss of American lives, the Japanese lost 4 big carriers which were protecting Japan and carrying planes that had bombs that were going to be used on the U.S ultimately leading to the Japanese retreating.
The war in Africa
German General Rommel had taken most of North Africa by 1942 and he had threatened to take the Suez Canal and take British claims which led to war between British and German forces
To gain experience and help the British fight the Germans
Why did the U.S believe they should get involved in North Africa?
It was important because it was used for trade and was easier than going all the way around North Africa
Why was the Suez Canal so important?
General Erwin Rommel
Who was desert fox?
General George Patton
Threatened Suez Canal and British canal
The Battle of El Alamein
German forces stopped and pushed back and the Axis forces surrendered in Africa
It stopped the German advance to the Suez Canal, some of Hitlers finest troops and military equipment were lost, and it exposed Southern Europe to and allied invasion through Italy (up the boot).
Why was the victory in Africa important?
Submarines. With these cargo ships were easy targets near and in ports. So many tankers of oil were sunk that we had to ration oil.
War on the Eastern European front
June 1941 Germany decides to invade the Soviet Union and break the non-aggression pact
Hitlers biggest mistake of the war
Spreading himself thin by spreading his troops to two different coasts, battling a two front war.
He hoped that attacking Stalingrad would break the Soviet economy and Germany would take over its many oil fields; best farmland, and major railroad junction.
Why was Hitlers plan in attacking Stalingrad?
Lots of hand to hand combat, because they were short on supplies near the end of the war. Germany lost 300,000 front line troops. Now the Soviets start to to go on the offensive and begin to push Germans back.
Jobs, become a national superpower, and now have the worlds best military.
What were some of the positive effects of the war for the U.S?
African Americans leave the south in large numbers.
Housing became scarce, an discrimination and racial riots occurred.
What issues were faced because of the Great Migration?
The 1942 executive order 9066
Put 110,000 Japanese, many of whom were second and third generation American citizens, into internment camps in the United States.
They feared attack from inside, racism, disloyalty.
Why did they put the Japanese Americans in the internment camps?
None of them were actually tried for spied or sabotage, many became soldiers, 442nd combat team which was the most highly decorated unit in WW2 were all Japanese.
The truth about Japanese Americans
Bought from government to help finance the war effort.
Limiting use of something or getting a specific amount.
Backyard gardens that helped food supplies and the war effort
Paying for the war
Spent 300 million dollars, more than All presidents, governments before; raised taxes, used bonds.
Loan money to the government and they will pay it back with interest
The code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day. Paratroopers dropped in the night before to sabotage communication and transportation links. 150,000 troops land and 11,000 planes on beaches of Normandy, France
Battle of Leyte Gulf
This battle was the largest naval battle in history, and finished the Japanese fleet once and for all.
Battle of the bulge
WWII battle in which German forces launched their final rattack in the west
Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt discuss post war plans, and discuss Soviet involvement in the war with Japan
Victory in Europe
May 8, 1945 Hitler kills himself and Germany surrendered, V-E day
Battle of Iwo Jima
We needed the island to reduce flying time to Japanese mainland. More than 6,800 Marines died taking control
Fire bombing Tolkyo
Dropped napalm, jellied gasoline on city, burns, 80,000 people destroyed along with 250;000 buildings crushed
Invasion of Okinawa
Stockpile for American military, 12,000 personnel died
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Arguments for dropping the atomic bomb
Arguments for dropping the bomb: it would end the war sooner and they would give up, it would save both Japanese and American lives in the long run, it would also save money and be a shorter war. Arguments against dropping the bomb: They were unsure of the results/effects on Earth and they never actually tried only tested in some New Mexican dessert. This would kill innocent civilians and would cause massive destruction and the U.S would have to help rebuild.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6th 1945 the Enola Gay drooped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, but there was no surrender so on August 9th the fat man Nagasaki and on September 2nd Japan signs surrender (VJ day)
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security this was set up in response to WW11, The U.S funds 95% and take solace in New York
a series of trials for the prosecution of the prominent leaders of Nazi Germany and some of the Japanese as well, but not their leader.
Reasons the U.S won the war
Power, American spirit, U.S submarines destroy Japanese re-supply efforts, Leadership, American intelligence- code breaking.
Long term effects
40-60 million people died, historic buildings/fanboys artwork were destroyed, the U.S was lifted out of the depression, the holocaust, the baby boom, the Gi bill, the rise of superpowers (United states and Soviet Union), and the forming of the United Nations.
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