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a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer PAGE(S) 112
in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest PAGE(S) 113
the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding territory PAGE(S) 115
in early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill which was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings PAGE(S) 115
in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market PAGE(S) 115
a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in a rectangular formation PAGE(S) 116
the rule of the many, government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives PAGE(S) 118
the rule of the few, a form of government in which a small group of people exercises control PAGE(S) 118
one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens PAGE(S) 119
Age of Pericles
the period between 461:429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power PAGE(S) 123
a system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings PAGE(S) 123
in ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote PAGE(S) 123
in ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess PAGE(S) 128
a from of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw PAGE(S) 129
the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates, it employs a question and answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason PAGE(S) 130
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world PAGE(S) 141
school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure PAGE(S) 143
a school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; it says that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God, and that people should bear whatever life offers PAGE(S) 143
Indo-Europeans on mainland Greece who dominated most of Greece and invaded Crete, helping to destroy the Minoan civilization. PAGE(S) 111
Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, the first great epic poems. PAGE(S) 111
One of the greatest Greek philosophers who influenced Western philosophy; pupil of Plato. PAGE(S) 116
A reform-minded aristocrat who received full power to correct economic crisis by cancelling all land debts and freed people who were enslaved for debts. His reforms, however, did not solve the problem. PAGE(S) 120
Athenian statesman, a reformer like Solon, who established a more democratic constitution and is generally regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy. PAGE(S) 120
Persian ruler who was defeated by an outnumbered Athenian army trying to conquer new lands in 490 B.C. PAGE(S) 121
Athenian ruler from 461:429 B.C., who expanded Greece's borders and expanded the involvement of Athenians in their democracy. PAGE(S) 123
Great Peloponnesian War
25 year war between the two Greek groups, the Athenians and the Spartans, when the Athenian Empire was destroyed in 405 B.C., weakening the entire Greek empire. PAGE(S) 124
Famous Greek playwright who composed the only complete trilogy possessed today, the Oresteia. PAGE(S) 129
Greek sculptor who was an influential philosopher; he was eventually sentenced to death for impiety and corrupting youth; he was killed in 399 B.C. by drinking hemlock, a poison. PAGE(S) 130:131
One of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization, he searched for the ideal state of society (427-347 B.C.). PAGE(S) 131
Another Greek philosopher, a student of Plato's, who found three good forms of government monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional of which he favored constitutional government for most people. PAGE(S) 132
Alexander the Great
King of Greece and Macedonia who conquered the Persian Empire with his great military skill in 326 B.C. PAGE(S) 139
Famous Greek scientist of the Hellenistic period who was important for his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, and for establishing the value of the mathematical constant pi. PAGE(S) 142,143
a custom or practice which has become ingrained or an organization designed for a specific purpose PAGE(S) 125
a three - dimensional surface (ball or globe) where all points are equidistant from a fixed point PAGE(S) 142
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