53 terms

Western Asia and Egypt (2)

bhs carr 2014
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epic poem
a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer PAGE(S) 112
arête
in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest PAGE(S) 113
Polis
the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding territory PAGE(S) 115
Acropolis
in early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill which was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings PAGE(S) 115
Agora
in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market PAGE(S) 115
Hoplite
in the early Greek military system, heavily armed foot soldiers PAGE(S) 116
Phalanx
a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in a rectangular formation PAGE(S) 116
Democracy
the rule of the many, government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives PAGE(S) 118
Oligarchy
the rule of the few, a form of government in which a small group of people exercises control PAGE(S) 118
Helot
in ancient Sparta, captive peoples who were forced to work for their conquerors PAGE(S) 118
Ephor
one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens PAGE(S) 119
Age of Pericles
the period between 461:429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power PAGE(S) 123
direct democracy
a system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings PAGE(S) 123
Ostracism
in ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote PAGE(S) 123
Ritual
a ceremony or rite PAGE(S) 128
Oracle
in ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess PAGE(S) 128
Tragedy
a from of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw PAGE(S) 129
Philosophy
an organized system of thought, from the Greek for "love of wisdom" PAGE(S) 130
Socratic method
the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates, it employs a question and answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason PAGE(S) 130
Hellenistic Era
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world PAGE(S) 141
Epicureanism
school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure PAGE(S) 143
Stoicism
a school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; it says that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God, and that people should bear whatever life offers PAGE(S) 143
Minoans
Bronze-age Crete people from 2700:1450 B.C. PAGE(S) 110:111
Mycenaeans
Indo-Europeans on mainland Greece who dominated most of Greece and invaded Crete, helping to destroy the Minoan civilization. PAGE(S) 111
Homer
Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, the first great epic poems. PAGE(S) 111
Aristotle
One of the greatest Greek philosophers who influenced Western philosophy; pupil of Plato. PAGE(S) 116
Solon
A reform-minded aristocrat who received full power to correct economic crisis by cancelling all land debts and freed people who were enslaved for debts. His reforms, however, did not solve the problem. PAGE(S) 120
Cleisthene
Athenian statesman, a reformer like Solon, who established a more democratic constitution and is generally regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy. PAGE(S) 120
Darius
Persian ruler who was defeated by an outnumbered Athenian army trying to conquer new lands in 490 B.C. PAGE(S) 121
Pericles
Athenian ruler from 461:429 B.C., who expanded Greece's borders and expanded the involvement of Athenians in their democracy. PAGE(S) 123
Great Peloponnesian War
25 year war between the two Greek groups, the Athenians and the Spartans, when the Athenian Empire was destroyed in 405 B.C., weakening the entire Greek empire. PAGE(S) 124
Aeschylus
Famous Greek playwright who composed the only complete trilogy possessed today, the Oresteia. PAGE(S) 129
Sophocles
A famous Greek playwright who wrote Oedipus Rex, a famous Greek tragedy. PAGE(S) 129
Socrates
Greek sculptor who was an influential philosopher; he was eventually sentenced to death for impiety and corrupting youth; he was killed in 399 B.C. by drinking hemlock, a poison. PAGE(S) 130:131
Plato
One of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization, he searched for the ideal state of society (427-347 B.C.). PAGE(S) 131
Aristotle
Another Greek philosopher, a student of Plato's, who found three good forms of government monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional of which he favored constitutional government for most people. PAGE(S) 132
Alexander the Great
King of Greece and Macedonia who conquered the Persian Empire with his great military skill in 326 B.C. PAGE(S) 139
Archimedes
Famous Greek scientist of the Hellenistic period who was important for his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, and for establishing the value of the mathematical constant pi. PAGE(S) 142,143
Enormous
very large PAGE(S) 110
Feature
a prominent or distinguishing aspect of something PAGE(S) 111
Significant
to be important to the outcome PAGE(S) 109
Area
a geographical region with an undetermined boundary PAGE(S) 115
Debate
a verbal exchange of different ideas and philosophies PAGE(S) 119
Derive
to obtain or to come from something PAGE(S) 115
Culture
the skills, arts, etc. of a certain people in a given period PAGE(S) 123
Institution
a custom or practice which has become ingrained or an organization designed for a specific purpose PAGE(S) 125
Pursue
to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat PAGE(S) 123
Aspect
the appearance of something from a specific position or viewpoint PAGE(S) 127
Controversial
to be disputed or the subject of argument PAGE(S) 129
Involved
to include or to contain PAGE(S) 128
Emerge
to rise from an obscure or inferior position PAGE(S) 138
Sphere
a three - dimensional surface (ball or globe) where all points are equidistant from a fixed point PAGE(S) 142
Successor
one that follows, especially to a throne, title, estate, or office PAGE(S) 140