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Ulmer PWMS MCA Earth & Physical Science Review
These flashcards will help me study for the science MCA test. Make sure to review these before the science Mca test.
Terms in this set (100)
what are the steps of a scientific method?
1.Problem-identify the problem
2.Research-research the problem
3.Hypothesis-Formulate hypothesis to explain the observation
4.Collect Data-perform experiments and gather all the data together
5.Analyze Data-tie everything together
what are scientific models and how can they be useful?
When you are trying to learn about something, a model can help you see how the object works.you can model things that you cannot see; or are too large or too small. For example, you learn that sound travels in waves. You cannot see sound , but you and your friend can move a rope up and down to create a model of how sound moves.
A condition that my influence the outcome of an investigation.
define controlled variable
Factors in an experiment that is purposely changed.
define changed variable
A single factor in an experiment that is purposely changed.
why is it important to change only one variable at a time?
If you test fr for more than one variable at a time during an experiment, you won't know which variable caused the desired change.
how do theories about scientific investigations such as the theory of plate tectonics come about? Remember, theories are well tested explanations.
Through observations , collection of evidence , and logical reasoning. (in the case of plate tectonics this would include matching land forms and the fossil record.)
what are unbalance forces?
Unbalance force acting on an object are forces that are not equal in size, but are still opposite in direction.
How do forces acting on object affect motion?
Balanced forces seem to cancel each other out. the result of balanced forces acting on an object is either the object does not move or the object continues its motion at constant velocity (speed and direction).
The result of unbalanced forces acting on an object is that they cause a change in velocity, making the object slow down, speed up or change direction.
How does the sum of the forces working on an object affect its motion?
the greater the force that acts on an object, he greater the change in motion.
what are some forces that can act on an object from a distance?
Some forces that can affect motion from a distance are magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces.
Density is the amount of mass that fits in a given volume. It is found by dividing the object's mass by its volume.
what is dissolving?
Dissolving is the process where by substance is absorbed by anther substance. In a familiar type of solution, a solid dissolved into a liquid such as a powered drink mix dissolved in water.
What is compression?
Compression is a change in the pressure of a substance when particles get closer together. this could be a change in state --i.e. gas to a liquid.
what is diffusion?
Diffusion is the process where particles spread out from high to low particles.
What is thermal expansion?
heat energy causes particles to speed up and spread farther apart. Examples include expansion joints in bridges and railroad tracks or when heated air expands into a balloon.
What is evidence of a physical change?
When a substance goes through a physical change, some of its physical properties may change, but does not become a different substance. Examples in physical change include changing the size, shape, phase (solid, liquid, gas), or the number pieces of a substance. It may also include a substance dissolving in another substance. The physical properties of a substance determine it uses and the physical properties of a substance determine it uses and the physical changes it can undergo.
what is the law of conservation of mass?
A law that states that the total amount of mass in a system is always the same, and that mass cannot be created or destroyed. Example- the mass of an ice cube does not change when it melts even though it has gone through a physical change.
How is energy transferred through a sound wave?
Sounds are produced by vibrations of objects. The vibrations cause the molecules of the material around the object to vibrate. This forms a wave that travels through the material.
What is reflection?
Reflection is the bouncing of light waves off a surface.
what is refraction?
Refraction is the bending of light wave when it passes from one medium to another.
what is the colour spectrum?
The colour spectrum is the colours into which white light can be separated. This is done when a beam f light passes through a prism. The prism will bend the different colours of white light at different amounts depending on their wave length. This makes the different colours visible.
What is potential energy?
Potential energy is energy that is due to the position or condition of an object. An object set high on a hill has has more potential energy than one on the ground.
What is kinetic energy?
Kinetic energy is energy of motion and has the ability to exert a force on matter that comes in contact with it. The faster something moves, the more kinetic energy it has.
When should potential energy become kinetic energy and vice versa?
Potential energy becomes kinetic energy when an object that was at rest begins moving. Kinetic energy becomes potential energy becomes when an moving object stops moving.
What is thermal energy?
Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of moving particles of a substance. The more the particles move the more thermal energy a substance has, and the warmer it gets.
What is electrical energy?
Electrical energy is the flow of electrons from one place to another. This is what runs electrical devices.
What is chemical energy?
Chemical energy is a form of potential energy stored in reactants. Chemical energy usually changes the heat or light energy when it is given off.
what is mechanical energy?
Mechanical energy is the total energy of an object. It is the sum of kinetic + potential energy. Mechanical energy turns the wheels on a car or moves your body.
What is nuclear energy?
Nuclear energy is the splitting apart of nucleus of an atom into smaller nuclei.
What is radiation?
Energy that is transferred in the form of rays or waves.
What is conduction?
Transfer of heat between objects that are in direct contact with each other.
What is convection?
Transfer of heat by movement of fluid, including air and water.
How do radiation, conduction, and convection work together to heat the atmosphere?
It all has to do with the movement of heat from the sun to our atmosphere, from the sun he heat is transferred via waves since there is nothing for the heat to be in contact with this is radiation, when it hits the atmosphere these waves encounter air which then transfers the heat (convection), the sun hits the ground and the ground transfers the heat back to the atmosphere (conduction and convection).
what forces create currents in the ocean?
Wind, temperature and salinity (salt).
what forces create currents and layers in the atmosphere?
-Unequal heating of surface air.-Causing warm air to rise and cool air to fall. -Causing convection currents in the troposphere.
describe the effect of earths rotation on winds and ocean currents?
-The rotation of he Earth creates what is known as Coriolis effect.since the earth is rotating beneath the wind, the path is follows becomes a curve. In the Northern hemisphere, the earth rotates counter clockwise so the wind is deflected to the right. The southern Hemisphere rotates counter clockwise deflecting the wind to the left. Regardless, the coriolis effect only influences the direction of the wind not its speed.
what is the theory of plate tectonics?
The lithosphere of the Earth floats partially on the molten layer under it made molten by the heat from the core. The flow of convection currents causes the movement of the lithosphere "plates".
Newtons first law of motion
an object in motion will stay in motion and an object in rest will stay in rest until an external force is acted on it.
Newtons second law of motion
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass the greater the amount of force needed.
Newtons third law of motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
Have changed in texture or composition as the result of heat and pressure.
What star is closest to the earth?
About how many galaxies are there?
What is the name of or galaxy?
Describe our Sun?
Why do we use light years to measure distance in space?
Due to the vast distances
Why is space travel limited?
Due to the vast distances
What is the central and largest body in our solar system?
Explain the process that causes day and night?
Earth rotates on its axis once per day.
What is the primary factor that contributes to the change of seasons?
The tilt of Earth's axis at 23.5 degrees.
What is the principal energy source for a solar system?
What 3 factors allow life to flourish on Earth?
Distance from the sun
Composition of the atmosphere
Presence of liquid water
more than half
less than half
What is the smallest unit of all living things?
An organism's ability to maintain a steady condition.
What is a hypothesis
A prediction that can be tested.
What is the speed of a wave ?
The speed of a wave is how far a specific point on the wave has traveled in a given time.
What is the wavelength of a wave?
Wavelength is the length of the wave the distance between any two consecutive identical points on an wave.
What is the frequency of a wave?
The frequency is the number of vibrations the wave has in a given time. It can be measured by counting the number of crests or compressions that pass a point in a certain period.
What is the amplitude of a wave?
The amplitude is the distance any point on a wave is moved from its resisting point.
a cloud forming rounded masses heaped on each other above a flat base at fairly low altitude.
a cloud of a class characterized by thin white filaments or narrow bands
The amount of mass in a given volume
How much space an object takes up.
The Amount of Matter in an object
anything that occupies space / mass and is composed of atoms
What is an atom?
Basic unit of matter
what evidence is there in favor of the Big Bang theory?
What is the name of our hemisphere?
What is photosynthesis?
The process that happens in a plant that turns carbon dioxide into oxygen.
What is the name of the planet closest to the sun?
Between what two planets does the asteroid belt lie?
Between Mars and Jupiter
What is the biggest planet in our solar system?
What is unique about Earth?
It is the only known planet in our solar system to support life.
What is an asteroid?
A large chunk of space rock that orbits the Sun.
T\F There are exactly the same number of sand particles on earth as the number of galaxies?
What two planets have rings?
Uranus and Saturn
How many planets are there in our solar system?
Which planet is knows as the blue planet, and why ?
Earth, because blue is the color that is seen from space.
Name all the planets in our solar system in order from the distances from the sun?
mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, urnaus, and neptune.
Which is the planet with the most number of satellites?
What is a satellite?
A celestial body that orbits another body.
what is the difference between a natural and a man made satellite?
Natural satellites are objects which are formed by nature such as the moon whereas artificial satellites are manufactured objects that continuously go round the Earth or some other body in space.
What is the ring of fire?
The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean.
What are the different types of volcanoes?
Shield volcanoes, Cinder volcanoes, Composite volcanoes.
What is an active volcano?
An active volcano is one that's currently in a state of regular eruptions.
What is a passive volcano?
A passive volcano is one that has not erupted in any recorded time in history.
what is gravity?
a force that attracts a body to the center of the earth.
How many major tectonic plates are there?
What is an earthquake?
A sudden and violent shaking of the ground.
How can you calculate force?
What is the center of an atom called?
Name a natural satellite that orbits earth?
Name a man made satellite that orbits earth?
International Space Station (ISS)
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