A series is three or more similar items listed in consecutive order. Words, phrases, clauses, or shot sentences that are written as a series are separated by commas.
Words- Dinner, movies, and parties are popular date ideas. (nouns)
We joked, laughed, and talked all evening. (verbs)
Phrases- I searched for his phone number in my notebook, on my desk, in my book bag, and throughout my house.
Subordinate clauses- We aren't sure who should drive, where we should go, or how late we should stay out.
With Dates and Addresses
On Monday, October 12, 1999, we founded the Community Music Network.
Send your information to Ms. Fay Buscone, Meals on Wheels, 520 Jones Street, Madison, Winsconsin 52738, before June 30.
(No comma is placed between the state and ZIP code)
In Letters: Salutations and Closings.
Salutations: Dear David,
Closings: Sincerely yours,
By the way, did you do you homework yet?
Your essay, of course, was beautifully written.
We will proceed as planned, nevertheless.
after all, at any rate, by the way, consequently, for example, for instance, however, i believe, i guess, i hope, i know, in fact, in my opinion, on the contrary, on the other hand, moreover, nevertheless, of course, therefore.
Comma: On the other hand, we did enjoy the trip to the beach.
No comma: Wear that glove on the other hand. (On the other hand is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
Commas: I noticed, however, that the boy never paid for the book.
No commas: Our book club will wait in line for however long it takes!
(However is part of the phrase that is necessary to the meaning of the sentence)
Expressions other than those listed above can also be parenthetical if they interrupt the flow of the sentence.
Novels, like movies, can change your view of life.
Contrasting expressions, which often begin with not, but not, or though not, are also considered parenthetical expressions.
Peggy, not Angela, will recite a poem at graduation.
The actor, though not well known, will star in the play.
Adverbial clause will also interrupt a sentence.
HIs novel sales, if they hit a hundred thousand today, will set a new record.
To make your meaning clear, you may have to substitute a semicolon for a comma.
Use a semicolon instead of a comma to avoid possible confusion in certain situations
A semicolon is used instead of a comma between the clauses of a compound sentence if they are commas within a clause.
Military uniforms are often blue, gray, or black;but those are not the only colors used.
(Normally, a comma comes before a conjunction separating the clauses in a compound sentence.)
The President's schedule includes stops in London, England; Paris, France; Florence, Italy; Geneva, Switzerland; and New Delhi, India.
Normally, commas separate the items in a series.
A hyphen (-) has several uses besides its most common use, dividing a word at the end of a line.
1: Divide words only between syllables.
hu.mor.ous = hu-morous or humor-ous.
2: Never divide a one-syllable word
laugh, brought, save, lead
3: Never separate a one-letter syllable from the rest of the word.
Do Not Break a-dore, e.mit, I.ris
4: Hyphenate after two letters at the end of a line, but do not carry a two- letter word ending to the next line.
Break be-lieve, re-call, in-vite
Do Not Break tight.en , shov.el, over.ly
5: Usually divide words containing double consonants between the double consonants
shim.mer, oc.cur, ship.ping, stag.ger
6: Divide hyphenated words only after the hyphens.
spur-of-the-moment, father-in-law, self-confident
7: Do not divide a proper noun or proper adjective.
Olivero, Yonkers, Himalayan, Polish.
Like a comma, a *dash (--) is used to separate words or expressions. A dash, however, indicated a grater separation than a comma does. Dashes should be used in the following situations.
-Use dashes to set up an abrupt change in thought
Several students-there were five- applied for the job.
I've misplaced the bool-oh, i see you have it.
-Use dashes to set off an appositive that is introduced by the words such as that is, for example, or for instance.
If an item is lost --for example, a book or a tape-- pay the fee.
Sam's job--that is, assistant librarian--is interesting.
-Use dashes to set off a parenthetical expression or an appositive that includes commas. Also use sashes to call special attention to someone.
Let's find a novel--mystery or historical--for you.
You can return the novel to me Monday or Wednesday--or Friday for that matter--right after school
-Use dashes to set off a phrase or a clause that summarizes or emphasizes what has preceded it.
June 6,7, and 8--these are the date of the book sale.
A book and a T-shirt-- I received these gifts for my birthday.
Gravel, crushed rock, cinder --these are used as ballast on railroad beds.