Which of these is not part of the skeletal system?
a) bones b) tendons c) cartilage d) ligaments
Which of these is a primary role of the skeletal system?
a) muscle attachment site b) leverage c) calcium homeostasis d) All of these are primary roles of the skeletal system.
d) All of these are primary roles of the skeletal system
The patella is an example of a __________ bone.
a) sesamoid b) short c) long d) flat
The shaft of a long bone is also called the __________.
a) metaphysis b) epiphysis c) medullary cavity d) diaphysis
A vertebra is an example of a(n) __________ bone.
a) irregular b) dense c) flat d) short
The end of a long bone is known as the __________.
a) metaphysis b) epiphysis c) diaphysis d) callus
The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
a) irregular b) long c) flat d) short e) sesamoid
The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the
a) tuberosity. b) trochanter. c) tubercle. d) ramus. e) condyle.
A hole through a bone is termed a
a) linea. b) foramen. c) facet. d) tubercle. e) ramus.
The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a
a) head. b) ridge. c) trochlea. d) crest. e) condyle.
A shallow depression on a bone is termed a
a) line. b) sulcus. c) fissure. d) fossa. e) facet.
A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a ________.
A(n) ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
Osteoclast functions to _________.
a) lay down matrix fibers b) break down bone c) build bone d) maintain bone
b) break down bone
Which of the following characteristics applies to the cells known as osteoclasts?
a) The cells secrete matrix. b) They are mature bone cells. c) The cells dissolve matrix. d) They are stem cells.
c) The cells dissolve matrix
Osteoblasts differentiate from __________.
a) osteoprogenitor cells b) osteocytes c) osteoclasts d) osteomedullary cells
a) osteoprogenitor cells
Osteoblasts are squamous cells that develop into ___________.
a) osteoclasts b) osteoprogenitor cells c) osteocytes d) Osteoblasts develop into all three of these cell types.
The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a
a) Haversian canal. b) lacuna. c) trabecula. d) Volkmann's canal. e) Venetian canal.
________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
a) Osteoclast b) Osteoprogenitor c) Osteoid d) Chondroblast e) Osteocyte
The lacunae of osseous tissue contain
a) osteocytes. b) blood cells. c) bone marrow. d) capillaries. e) chondroblasts.
Spongy bone comprises an open meshwork of osseous spicules called __________.
a) trabeculae b) lacunae c) concentric lamellae d) osteons
The type of bone that forms the diaphysis of a long bone is called __________ bone.
a) cancellous b) compact c) trabecular d) spongy
Spongy bone is filled with ____________.
a) fatty marrow b) the osteons c) compact bone d) red marrow
d) red marrow
Fat is stored within the
a) spongy bone. b) diaphysis. c) medullary cavity. d) epiphysis. e) metaphysis.
c) medullary cavity
In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
a) diagonal. b) radial. c) parallel. d) anterior. e) proximal.
The trabeculae of spongy bone
a) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone. b) are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis. c) are organized along stress lines. d) will collapse under stress. e) are composed mostly of cartilage.
c) are organized along stress lines
Migration of blood vessels into the central region of the cartilage bone model, starting bone development, occurs at which site?
a) secondary ossification center b) epiphysis c) periosteum d) primary ossification center
d) primary ossification center
Migration of osteoblasts into the ___________ creates the __________.
a) epiphysis, secondary ossification center b) diaphysis, secondary ossification center c) epiphysis, primary ossification center d) diaphysis, tertiary ossification center
a) epiphysis, secondary ossification center
What structure is necessary for a bone to grow in length?
a) periosteal bud b) epiphyseal cartilage c) lacunae d) diaphysis
b) epiphyseal cartilage
Endochondral bone development begins with the formation of a(n) __________.
a) metaphysis b) epiphysis c) cartilage model d) diaphysis
c) cartilage model
The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as
a) osteogenesis. b) hardening. c) remodeling. d) calcification. e) ossification.
Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?
a) clavicle b) carpal bones c) the roof of the skull and the clavicle d) roof of the skull e) femur
c) the rood of the skull and the clavicle
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
a) calcified model. b) cartilage model. c) membranous model. d) fibrous connective-tissue model. e) osteoblasts model.
b) cartilage model
Secondary ossification centers occur
a) in dermal bones. b) in the diaphysis. c) in the metaphyses. d) in the epiphyses. e) at the periosteum.
d) in the epiphyses
Which of these cell types plays a role in bone remodeling?
a) osteoclast b) osteocyte c) osteoblast d) All of these types of cells are involved in bone remodeling.
d) All of these types of cells are involved in bone remodeling
If osteoblasts are more active than osteoclasts, bones may become __________.
a) denser b) stronger c) thicker d) Any of these changes may result if osteoblasts are more active than osteoclasts.
d) Any of these changes may result if osteoblasts are more active than osteoclasts
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?
a) thyroid hormones b) calcitonin c) calcitriol d) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?
a) calcitonin b) calcitriol c) thyroid hormones d) vitamin D
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)
a) increase reabsorption of calcium in the kidney b) increase osteoblasts on bone c) increase osteoclasts
b) increase osteoblasts on bone
Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?
a) parathyroid hormone (PTH) b) calcitonin c) calcitriol
Calcitriol is required for __________.
a) quieting osteoblasts b) collagen synthesis c) activating osteoclasts d) absorbing dietary calcium and phosphate
d) absorbing dietary calcium and phosphate
A lack of exercise could
a) cause bones to store more calcium. b) cause bones to lose their medullary cavity. c) result in porous and weak bones. d) cause bones to become longer. e) cause bones to become thicker.
c) result in porous and weak bones
Parathyroid hormone causes what response in the kidneys?
a) decreased calcium ion retention b) retention of calcium ions c) increased rate of calcium uptake d) increased osteoblast activity
b) retention of calcium ions
Which hormone increases blood calcium upon secretion?
a) growth factor b) parathyroid hormone (PTH) c) Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) d) thyroid hormone
b) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Roughly what portion of the body's total calcium content is deposited in the skeleton?
a) 95% b) 99% c) 75% d) 85%
A drop in blood calcium levels stimulates the secretion of __________.
a) growth hormone b) parathyroid hormone c) calcitonin d) thyroid hormone
b) parathyroid hormone
A child with rickets often has
a) bowed legs. b) oversized facial bones. c) frequent bruises. d) long fingers. e) inadequate muscle development.
a) bowed legs
Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
a) sulfate. b) iron. c) potassium. d) sodium. e) calcium.
How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?
a) Vitamin D is produced by osteoblasts during endochondral ossification. b) Vitamin D replaces calcium in the skeleton. c) Vitamin D is regulated by osteoclast activity. d) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling. e) Vitamin D provides a framework for calcium in the matrix.
d) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling
Which of the following is formed immediately after a fracture?
a) hematoma b) internal callus c) spongy bone d) external callus
When a fractured bone heals it leaves a thickened region known as a ____________.
a) tuberosity b) bone scab c) fracture hematoma d) callus