SOL 13 and 15d: The Cold War and it's effects
Terms in this set (143)
Nations that took over large territories of people they considered "uncivilized." Included the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Germany, the United States and others.
Countries whose population share a sense of national identity, usually including a language & culture
A situation where two nations have so much power that all other countries feel compelled to take sides.
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
The portion of Germany controlled by the USSR after WWII. It was communist and dominated by the Communist Party. Suffered serious economic issues during the Cold War.
Originally split up into British, French, and American zones, it was joined back together and made independent under key conditions including democracy and capitalism. More economically successful than it's eastern neighbor.
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
the idea that society should be based on public ownership and communal control of property. An economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
Something that shields, protects, absorbs shock, or cushions
a government, especially an authoritarian one
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.
Revolutionary leader who took control of the Communist Party after Lenin died.
Countries bordering USSR that Soviets made Communist to have "friendly ring of countries"
the power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II.
a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare.
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
politics inside America
Activities of a nation in its relationships with other nations; international relations.
Countries that were capitalist and aligned themselves with the United States in the Cold War and had been developed or industrialized before WWII
a system based on private ownership, free trade, and competition
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people.
variation of communism based on the ideas of it's original founding thinker and new ideas added by a radical revolutionary Bolshevik leader.
a worldview and a method of analyzing society and economies that focuses on class relations and societal conflict. Also a person following those ideas into a revolution.
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
a state powerful enough to influence events throughout the world
democratic political institutions
Legislatures, executive branches, and an independent judiciary in addition to having supporting institutions like social organizations dedicated to maintaining a democracy.
economic system in which buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace. Prices are determined by competition, and price determines where resources go.
person who supports community ownership of property and the sharing of all profits
A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
An economic thinker who analyzed how capitalism led to the development of new classes and identities and changed the way society worked. Wrote the Communist Manifesto.
Leader of Bolsheviks who led a communist revolution; took over Russia
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb. Also developed a doctrine about the containment of Communism.
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a group of 28 capitalist countries that has agreed to protect each other in case of attack; founded in 1949
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations.
nuclear arms race
Cold War competition turned into a race to build the most deadly weapons of mass destruction.
The first major conflict of the Cold War, lasting from 1950 to 1953 in Eastern Asia.
War begun when North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950.
War between North and South Vietnam. The US got involved in order to prevent South Vietnam from becoming communist.
states pledge to come to one another's defense in the event that either is attacked. An ally is not required to support a nation if it chooses to attack another country.
generally Europe from Western Germany and further west. Includes: France, UK, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and others.
British statesman and leader during World War II; received Nobel prize for literature in 1953
Division between Eastern and Western Europe during the Cold War. A way of referring to a barrier to understanding and information
Capital of Russia and the USSR
Capital of Germany. Also divided during the Cold War even though the West was surrounded by communist land.
built in 1961 to prevent the flight of East Germans to the West; dismantled in 1990. Served as a sore spot for the Soviet Union because it highlighted the rough conditions on the Eastern side.
the threat to respond to attempts by another country to provoke you with overreaction and devastating nuclear attacks
conflicts in which two opposing states support opposite sides in a civil war in some third state
A large island off the coast of Florida that became the site of Cold War tensions after a communist revolution.
Communist dictator of Cuba who came into power in 1959.
Cuba's leader in the 1950's that Castro's revolution removed from power
Bay of Pigs
Failed CIA operation in April 1961 to overthrow Castro and take over Cuba using Cuban exiles.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Tense confrontation between Kennedy and Khrushchev that nearly led to nuclear war in October 1962. The US used a blockade and after negotiations, the US removed nukes from Turkey and the USSR removed nukes from Castro's country.
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
The edge of something. ALSO
A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
The site of US nuclear missiles during the 50s and 60s
Chairman of China's Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his death in 1976.
The 37th President of the United States; the only president to resign from office. He instituted a policy of Vietnamization during the war.
a communist country in the northern half of the peninsula close to Japan
a republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula
A deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese nationalist who drove the French out of Vietnam and who led North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
2 US destroyers were supposedly attacked by North Vietnamese naval torpedoes. Little evidence. Used to justify going to war in Vietnam.
what the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time. In democracies this can put pressure on elected leaders.
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations
the civilian population (and their activities) of a country at war
state department offical. was accused of giving secret government documents to the Soviets
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Americans convicted and executed for spying and passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union
Senator Joseph McCarthy
led a highly public witch hunt in the United States to rat out 'communists.' Ended in his discredit
the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence
a systematic attempt to overthrow a government by using persons working secretly from within
The use of full scale nuclear weapons would effectively result in the destruction of both sides.
The money spent on the miltiary
A place in Virginia, on the Chesapeake Bay that has a massive naval base and ship building facilities. Benefited significantly from WWII and the Cold War because of military expenditures.
The place where the US military is headquartered.
"pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty"
Meaning: The US would pay any amount of money, take on any heavy load, deal with any painful thing, help any person opposed to communism, oppose any communist, to make sure that democracies and capitalist countries can go on existing.
"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country"
Meaning: stop whining about having the government provide you with stuff and consider what you could be doing to chip in for the fight against communism.
A moral or legal obligation; a responsibility
World War II veteran
A person who participated in the military during WWII
A person who participated in the military during Vietnam
nationalism based on ethnic identity. In the US, this often refers to when white Americans label the US a white, christian nation
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
an apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth
contest in which nations compete to build more powerful weapons. Costs enormous amounts of money.
Economic, Social, and Political issues within a nation that need to be addressed
Economic, military, and political issues that are put on a nation by other countries
A party organization in communism that determines how to run the country and economy.
Quotas and requirements for production that are enforced severely in a communist system.
the appointed officials who operate government agencies from day to day
When stuff is made that nobody needs/wants and stuff that people need/want doesn't get made.
a limited or fixed number or amount of people or things
A positive or negative thing that motivates behavior.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
The various smaller states which made up the USSR
large country between Poland and Russia
Self-government, political control
Soviet leader of the 1980s who worked with Reagan to end the Cold War
fundamental restructuring of the Soviet economy; policy introduced by Gorbachev
An economic system where individuals make choices about what to buy from other individuals freely based on prices.
The beliefs that form the foundation of how a communist country should be run: state ownership of property, wealth redistribution, etc.
the development of a free market economy in support of free trade
the small number of individuals and families that monopolized political power and economic resources
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Led a conservative movement into power in the US.
The 39th President of the United States; the peanut farmer from Georgia
The ability of a person or country to claim that their decisions and ways of acting are based in a rational moral system.
cutting off trade with another country to pressure it to change its policies
deal with issues within a country, as opposed to foreign policies which deal with other nations
conservative political philosophy
The explanations and writings that support conservative ideology in the US. Focused on small government, individualism, strong military, Christianity, and no extra support or recognition for minorities of various kinds.
size and role of government
Arguments about how much the government should be involved in the economy and society.
An attempt to return America to the traditional values of church, family, and free enterprise.
Term to describe conservative changes made to government starting in 1980; smaller government
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power and go with what legislators would have originally intended with a law.
One who favors limited government intervention, particularly in economic affairs.
favoring traditional views; against change.
government intervention in a market that affects the production of a good
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Chief Justice Earl Warren
A supreme court chief justice under whom the Supreme Court had made a noticeable shift to the left (liberal side). Brown v. Board, Roe v. Wade, and Miranda v. Arizona
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education. Was supposed to end segregation in schools.
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
ethical standards that guide people in their thinking about aspects of their society
Political statements that sound harmless to some people, but clearly aim to get the support of another group. (EX: saying "Law and Order" when what you mean is "Let's repress those brown people who have been making you so nervous!"
Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party by using dog whistle politics.
George H. W. Bush
~Persian Gulf War
To be in the middle, a moderate in terms of political views.
:resident from 1993-2001, a centrist democrat.
open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values. In the US, generally aiming to solve social and economic problems through government action.
George W. Bush
43rd U.S. President. 2001-2009 Republican
money, food, or other resources given or lent by one country to another.
medicine, food, and shelter that international relief agencies give to people in need
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings.
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1948: provides a framework or guidelines for how governments should treat their citizens
A nation for the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes made from the Paris Peace Conference.
A country led by Saddam Hussein in the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s. Warred with Iran and attempted to invade Kuwait.
Persian Gulf War
War in 1991 when the US came to Kuwait's rescue after Iraq invaded in 1990
Operation Desert Storm
1991 American-led attack on Iraqi forces after Iraq refused to withdraw its troops from Kuwait. First combat participation by US women.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement that created a free-trade area among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea
A country that from 1948 to 1994 was dominated by a white minority that viciously repressed the black majority in policies called Apartheid
Either genocide at Srebrenica and Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995 or the wider ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska that took place during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War
International organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama bin Laden. Broke off from Islamic fighters supported by the US in Afghanistan that had been fighting the USSR when it invaded that country.
Terrorist suicide attack on Twin Towers, the Pentagon, and the Capitol Building (attempted). Led to two wars and significant domestic changes in the US>
legislation that increased U.S. government's power to investigate and prosecute suspected terrorists
war in Afghanistan
NATO members -goal: remove Ben Laden, Al Qaeda and the Taliban government that supports them
war in Iraq
A war to kick out Saddam Hussein based on his supposed possession of weapons of mass destruction and support of terrorism. Neither turned out to be particularly true.
weapons of mass destruction
Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use.