Abnormal Psychology - Models of Abnormality
Terms in this set (48)
a set of assumptions and concepts that helps scientists explain and interpret observations. Also called a paradigm
a nerve cell
A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
a site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit.
the chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream.
drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electrical current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead.
brain surgery for mental disorders; also called neurosurgery
according to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives and impulses
according to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance withe the reality principle.
Ego defense mechanisms
according to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse.
according to Freud the psychological force that represents a person's value and ideals.
according to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development.
a psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant.
an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy.
according to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient's life, now or in the past.
a series of ideas and images that form during sleep.
the reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems.
the psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one's problems.
a simple form of learning
a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated
a process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others
a process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response.
a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread.
a therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
the humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness
the humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Peris in which clinicians actively more clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises.
family systems theory
a theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
a therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems.
a group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician; also called a mutual help group
a therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways
a therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship; also called marital therapy
community mental health treatment
a treatment approach that emphasizes community care
the view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members; also called culturally diverse perspective
approaches that are designed to help address the unique issues faced by members of cultural minority groups
approaches geared to the pressures of being a woman in Western society; also called feminist therapies
the tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
glands, located throughout the body, work along with neurons to control such vital activities as growth, reproduction, sexual activity, heart rate, body temperature, energy and responses to stress. the glands released chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream, and these chemicals then propel body organs into action.
According to Freud, it is unavailable to immediate awareness.
Object relations theorists
propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development.
Short-term Psychodynamic therapies
Patients choose a single problem to work on, such as a difficultly getting along with other people, the therapist and patient focus on this problem throughout the treatment and work only on the psychodynamic issues that relate to it.
Relational Psychodynamic therapies
therapists are key figures in the lives of patients. therapists should also disclose things about themselves, particularly their own reactions to patients, and try to establish more equal relationships with patients.
one must know that they can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary.
a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value.
abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, cultural, and societal influences.
people must first have a biological, psychological, or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and must then be subjected to episodes of severe stress.