K. Jubilag

Unit 2: Population
The study of human populations
An official count of a population after set periods of time (ten years)
Population density
The umber of people in a particular area
Arithmetic density
(population density) a type of population density; total number of people divided by total land area
Physiologic density
A type of population density; total umber of people divided by the number of arable (farmable) land
Population composition
Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Age-sex pyramid
Pyramid/graph that shows the percentages of each age group for both males and females
Crude birth rate
(CBR) number of live births per year per thousand people in a year
Crude death rate
(CDR) number of deaths per year per thousand people in year
Infant mortality
number of infant deaths per thousand live births
Total fertility rate
(TFR) number of children born to women of reproduction age
Demographic transition
(cycle) change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Doubling time
The number of years it takes for a country to double in population
Exponential growth
Type of growth where the more it is added, the faster it grows
Linear growth
Type of growth with a constant fixed rate of growth
Natural increase
The difference between the number of births and the number of deaths during a certain period
Population explosion
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
Stationary population level
(SPL) the level at which a national population ceases to grow
Absolute direction
A compass direction like north or south
Relative direction
Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down
Absolute distance
The distance between two points usually measured in miles or kilometers
Relative distance
Distance not measured in linear terms such as miles or kilometers but in cost and time
Push factors
Negative conditions that force someone to leave their home and move
Pull factors
Positive conditions that attract people to new locations
Activity space
(action) space within which daily activity occurs
Cyclic movement
Movement during your daily routine from your home and back
Movement among a definite set of places
Seasonal movement
A form of cyclic movement; involves moving because of a change in season
Process of permanently moving from your home and to another region
Process of people exiting or leaving a region
Forced migration
(involuntary) when migrants are pushed from their land
Voluntary migration
When migrants have an option of whether or not to move
Internal migration
Movement within a country, not outside a country
External migration
Movement outside a country
Interregional migration
Moving from one region in the country to another region
Step migration
Migration to a long distance location that is achieved in a series of small steps
Counter migration
The return of migrants to the regions from which they are from
Intervening opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly lessens the attractiveness of sites farther away
Distance decay
The interaction between two places declines as the distance increases
A migrant fleeing some form of persecution or abuse
Temporary refugees
Refugees staying in a host country/region while waiting for resettlement.
Permanent refugees
Refugees who have been greatly integrated into the host country/region and are thus seen as long-term visitors.
International refugees
Refugees that flee their country and move to another country
Intranational refugees
Refugees that abandon their homes but still stay in their country to escape persecution
Immigration laws
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
Eugenic population policy
Government policy designed to favor one race over another
Expansive population policy
Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth
Restrictive population policy
Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Negative population growth
The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases