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What 6 elements make up most of the body weight and what is the %?
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium. makes up 98.5% of body weight
varieties of the same element that differ only by atomic mass (different number of neutrons)
unstable isotopes that breakdown or decay to a more stable isotope by releasing radiation, some harmless but some harmful to tissues
chemical reactivity, osmotic effects (influence water movement), electrical effects on nerve and muscle tissue
energy releasing (exergonic) decomposition reactions, breaks covalent bonds, produces smaller molecules
energy storing (endergonic) synthesis reactions, requires energy input, driven the energy released by catabolism
any chemical reaction which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy, molecule oxidized in this process, electron acceptor in this process is oxidizing agent
any chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy, molecule is reduced when it accepts electrons, molecule donating electron is reduction agent
oxidation- reduction reaction
oxidation of one molecule is always accompanied by reduction of another
what are the 4 categories of bio- compounds
carbogydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides and nucleic acids
how living cells form polymers, a hydroxyl (-OH) group is removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen (H+) from another
a water molecule ionizes into -OH and H+, covalent bond linking one monomer to the other one is broken, the -OH is added to one monomer and the H+ is added to the other
quickly mobilized source of energy, all digested carbs are converted to glucose,
central carbon with 3 attachments, amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), and radical group (R) group. (properties are determined by the R group)
coiled or folded shape held together by hydrogen bonds (alpha helicies or beta pleated sheets)
compact tertiary structures well suited for proteind embedded in cell membranes and proteins that must move freely in body fluid
slender filaments better suited for roles as in muscle contraction and strengthening the skin
structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion
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