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the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties

how many elements play a biological roll?


What 6 elements make up most of the body weight and what is the %?

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium. makes up 98.5% of body weight


inorganic elements that are extracted from soil by plants (3/4 in body is Ca and P)


needed for nerve and muscle function are mineral salts


varieties of the same element that differ only by atomic mass (different number of neutrons)

Atomic weight

accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of isotopes


unstable isotopes that breakdown or decay to a more stable isotope by releasing radiation, some harmless but some harmful to tissues

ionizing radiation

deadly in high doses, mutagenic and carcinogenic in small doses

physical half life

the time it takes 50% to decay into a more stable state


salts that ionize in water and are capable of conducting an electric current

electrolyte importance

chemical reactivity, osmotic effects (influence water movement), electrical effects on nerve and muscle tissue

free radicals

chemical particles with an odd number of electrons, antioxidants neutralize them

Van Der Waals Forces

weak, attraction between neutral atoms


tendency of one substance to cling to another


tendency of like molecules to cling to one another

decomposition reaction

AB-> A+B

synthesis reaction

A+B-> AB

exchange reactions

AB + CD-> AC + BD

reversible reactions

can go in either direction under different circumstances


all the chemical reactions in the body


energy releasing (exergonic) decomposition reactions, breaks covalent bonds, produces smaller molecules


energy storing (endergonic) synthesis reactions, requires energy input, driven the energy released by catabolism


any chemical reaction which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy, molecule oxidized in this process, electron acceptor in this process is oxidizing agent


any chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy, molecule is reduced when it accepts electrons, molecule donating electron is reduction agent

oxidation- reduction reaction

oxidation of one molecule is always accompanied by reduction of another

organic chemistry

the study of compounds containing carbon


the study of molecules that compose living things

what are the 4 categories of bio- compounds

carbogydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides and nucleic acids

functional groups

small clusters of atoms attached to carbon back bones

what are the 5 functional groups in ppt?

hydroxyl, methyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate


(-OH) occurs in sugars, alcohols


(-CH3) occurs in fats, oils steroids, amino acids


(-COOH) occursin amino acids, sugars, proteins


(-NH2) occurs in amino acids and proteins


(-H2PO4) occurs in nucleic acids and ATP


joining monomers to make a polymer

dehydration synthesis

how living cells form polymers, a hydroxyl (-OH) group is removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen (H+) from another


a water molecule ionizes into -OH and H+, covalent bond linking one monomer to the other one is broken, the -OH is added to one monomer and the H+ is added to the other


hydrophilic, general formula (CH2O)n, made up of monosaccharides


glycogen (energy storage in animals), starch (energy storage in plants, cellulose

Carbohydrate functions

quickly mobilized source of energy, all digested carbs are converted to glucose,


a polymer of amino acids

amino acid

central carbon with 3 attachments, amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), and radical group (R) group. (properties are determined by the R group)


any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds

peptide bond

joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next

primary structure

protein's sequence amino acids which is encoded in the genes

secondary structure

coiled or folded shape held together by hydrogen bonds (alpha helicies or beta pleated sheets)

tertiary structure

further bending and folding of proteins into globular and fibrous shapes

glubular proteins

compact tertiary structures well suited for proteind embedded in cell membranes and proteins that must move freely in body fluid

fibrous proteins

slender filaments better suited for roles as in muscle contraction and strengthening the skin

quaternary structure

associations of two or more polypeptide chains

protein functions

structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion


has 3 components: nitrogenous base, sugar, one or more phosphate group ex) ATP

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