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US History STAAR Review
Terms in this set (183)
Period: Westward Expansion
from about 1877 to 1900. America moves west after the Civil War, and confronts the Native American cultures there while using new technologies (plows, etc) to change the land
1. Great Plains
Grassland of Central North America that extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
2. Homestead Act (1862)
Was a law that provided 160 acres to anyone who was willing to settle land in the west
3. Cattle Drives
As a demand for beef increased, cowboys drove herds of cattle along trails to be shipped to the east by railroad. Famous trails include the Chisholm, Western, and Goodnight-Loving.
The Great Plains Indians relied on the Buffalo to continue their way of life. When the buffalo were killed off, so was the lifestyle of the Plains Indians.
5. Dawes Act (1887)
U.S. law that attempted to assimilate Indians by giving them individual plots of land. It authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
6. Battle of Wounded Knee
U.S. soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native Americans in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
Period: Gilded Age
about 1877 to 1900. Term coined by writers including Mark Twain to satirize (make fun of) what they believed to be an era of serious social problems hidden by a thin layer of gold and industrialization. A time of enormous growth in America with even bigger social concerns (tenements, urbanization)
7. Andrew Carnegie (November 25, 1835 - August 11, 1919)
Carnegie was Scottish-American industrialist business tycoon and philanthropist who controlled most of the steel industry.
8. John D. Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 - May 23, 1937)
Rockefeller was an American industrialist business tycoon and philanthropist who owned Standard Oil and controlled 90% of the oil industry in the late 1800s.
Situation in which one company controls an entire industry.
Small companies join together to form one large company.
The idea that government should not interfere with business practices.
12. Social Darwinism
The belief that the rich succeed because they are superior to the poor. This belief was applied to big business during the Gilded Age.
13. Social Gospel
Groups of people who worked to better conditions in cities according to the biblical ideas of charity and justice. (Late 19th century)
14. Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed business monopolies, but was not very effective at limiting the power of big business.
15. Labor Unions
Organizations that protected the interests of the worker. They created the 40-hour work week and dealt with dangerous working conditions. They also organized strikes. Famous labor unions included Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor.
The rise of a manufacturing economy and decline of an agriculture economy.
The large growth of cities. With urbanization came a large range of urban problems including sanitation, transportation, and crowded living conditions.
18. Jane Addams
She was the founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935)
19. Settlement Houses
Community centers that helped immigrants address the problems of horrible living conditions, disease, illiteracy, and unemployment.
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South.
21. Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in cities. A boss led the machine and attempted to grab more votes for their party. Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall are an example of political machines
about 1900 - 1920. A time when a general political philosophy emerged advocating social, political, and economic reform. Modern Progressivism was part of societal response to the vast changes, and problems, brought about by industrialization of the Gilded Age.
Reporters and writers who exposed corruption and the abuses of big business.
The right to vote
Procedure by which citizens can propose a law to be placed on a ballot. Progressive idea lead to more citizen participation in our democracy.
Procedure by which a public official may be removed from office by popular vote. More democracy...
Procedure by which voters can vote for a proposed initiative on a ballot. More democracy...
Prohibition in the United States was a national ban on the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol, in place from 1920 to 1933.
28. Susan B. Anthony
She was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. (February 15, 1820 - March 13, 1906)
29. W.E.B. Du Bois
Early civil rights leader and co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Felt African Americans needed to actively confront injustice. (like Malcolm X did later) (February 23, 1868 - August 27, 1963)
30. Upton Sinclair
Sinclair was the author of The Jungle, a book that described the terrible conditions of the meat packing industry and the struggles of immigrants who worked at them. (September 20, 1878 - November 25, 1968)
31. Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells was an African-American journalist and activist who led an anti-lynching crusade in the United States in the 1890s.
the proposed improvement of the human species by encouraging or permitting reproduction of only those people with genetic characteristics judged desirable. An American notion that was taken up by the Nazis.
33. Woodrow Wilson
He was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921, and a leader of the progressive movement. Also, President during WWI, wrote the Fourteen Points and idea for League of Nations. He wanted to make the world "Safe for democracy." (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924)
Period: Imperialism - Late 1800's and early 1900's period when the USA sought overseas colonies to compete with other countries.
Imperialism usually means a stronger country controls weaker territory through political, economic, or military means.
34. Theodore Roosevelt
Progressive and imperialist president. Used the 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up "bad" trusts/monopolies. Created National Park system. Eventually split to from Progressive Party to form "Bull Moose" Party.
35. Sanford B. Dole
In 1882 After US marines overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy, US government chose Sanford Dole as President. He pushed for annexation of Hawaii as an American territory. Hawaii made territory in 1898.
36. The Role of missionaries in Imperialism
Missionaries felt duty to spread Christian religion and western values (language, law, capitalism) to the heathen masses. Especially effective in new US colonies in Pacific.
37. Alfred Thayer Mahan
He was a U.S. Admiral who encouraged the U.S. to strengthen its naval power to a become a world power. (September 27, 1840 - December 1, 1914)
38. The Spanish-American War (1898)
brief war fought between US and Spain, mostly in Cuba and the Phillipines. Fueled by Expansionism, Yellow Journalism, the de Lome letter, and the USS Maine explosion.
39. Results of the Spanish American War
Spain loses most of its empire, The Platt Amendment (1901)- allows the U.S. to control Cuba, The U.S. acquired the territories of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico, The U.S. increases its strength as a world power.
40. Panama Canal (1914)
Man-made waterway that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Acquired by United States in 1903/giving America important trading power in the area between North and South America.
41. Open Door Policy
Ensured that the U.S. could trade with China. When the partition of China by the European powers and Japan seemed imminent, the United States felt its commercial interests in China were threatened.
Period: WWI - War in Europe from 1914-1918. Militarism, Nationalism, Alliances, Imperialism
US joins War in 1917 after German attacks on shipping/Zimmerman Telegram and helps turn the war with millions of troops
42. General John Pershing
The commander of the American expeditionary force during WWI. Under his leadership, American forces helped end the stalemate and led the Allies to victory. (September 13, 1860 - July 15, 1948)
43. Henry Cabot Lodge
U.S. Senator who opposed the League of Nations. Lodge demanded Congressional control of declarations of war; Wilson refused and the United States Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles nor joined the League of Nations. (May 12, 1850 - November 9, 1924)
44. New weapons introduced during the WWI
Machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and airplanes were introduced. Airplanes engaged in "dog fights" in the skies over Europe.
45. Trench Warfare
Opposing side's attacked from the ditches instead of an open battlefield. Often a result of use of the new machine guns.
A situation where neither side could gain an advantage in combat...such as the trench warfare system in WWI
47. Battle of Argonne Forest
The battle that led to the surrender of the Germany army and the end of WWI. Also the battle where Alvin York won his Medal of Honor.
48. Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's proposal for peace after WWI. Wilson called for the freedom of the seas, ending secret treaties, a League of Nations, and other peaceful measures.
49. League of Nations
International organization formed after WWI to help solve disputes between countries. It had no real power, the U.S. did not join, and it was considered a failure after failing to prevent rise of dictators during 1930's.
50. Treaty of Versailles
The treaty that officially ended WWI. It blamed Germany for WWI and handed down harsh punishment. Germany was forced to pay reparations to the Allies for the cost of the war. The treatment of Germany in the treaty helped lead to the rise of Adolph Hitler and WWII.
Period: Roaring Twenties - period from 1920-1929
Marked by birth of the Modern USA - consumerism, economic boom and bust, and cultural transformations
51. The Red Scare
After WWI, Americans became very fearful of radical political theories. Immigrants were blamed for the violence, and the Palmer Raids targets immigrants' homes and businesses. Other examples of Nativism include the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial, anti-immigration laws (Emergency Quota Act and National Origins Act), and the rise of the "new KKK."
52. Sacco and Vanzetti
Anarchists and Italian immigrants accused of murder. They were sentenced to death. Because of their political stance and nationality they were not given a fair trial.
53. Glenn Curtiss
Supplied planes/improved designs during WWI enabled, new air mail service, and sped paper communication during the 20s.
54. Marcus Garvey
Inspired racial pride in millions called "Back to Africa," black nation/economy; uniforms, parades showed unity/economy; uniforms, parades showed unity; convicted for stock fraud and deported to Jamaica
55. Henry Ford
Auto manufacturer who created the Model T and began to mass produce the automobile. He used the assembly line to speed up producton and satisfy demand. (July 30, 1863 - April 7, 1947)
56. William Jennings Bryan
The prosecutor in the Scopes Trial. He supported creationism in school. He was also famous as the Populist and Democratic presidential candidate in 1896, 1900, and 1908. Gave the famous "Cross of Gold" speech highlighting the farmer's belief in cash and silver currency. (March 19, 1860 - July 26, 1925)
57. Clarence Darrow
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools. One of the founders of ACLU to defend constitutional rights. (April 18, 1857 - March 13, 1938)
58. Charles Lindbergh
American pilot who made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. Personified the "can-do" spirit of the Roaring 20's.
59. Warren G. Harding's Return to Normalcy
Harding's promise to restore America to traditional moral values, and to adopt pro-business attitudes after our involvement in WWI. While European governments grew Harding (republican) shrank government with laissez faire capitalism. His administration known for corruption.
60. Teapot Dome Scandal
The prime example of corruption during Warren G. Harding's Presidency; involved Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall leasing U.S. naval oil reserves in Wyoming to private interests in exchange for bribes.
Embracing new urban attitudes and fashions, Women began to demand more freedom and assert their independence during the 1920's.
62. The Scopes Trial (1925)
The famous "Monkey Trial" that pitted the teaching of creationism against Darwin's theory of evolution in Tennessee public schools. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. Modernism vs Traditionalism.
Jazz is a popular musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in black communities in the Southern U.S. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. see "Harlem Renaissance"
64. The Great Migration
The mass migration of African-Americans to Northern cities from 1910 through both World Wars. They left the segregated south for industrial jobs in northern cities.
65. The Harlem Renaissance
Period of African-American cultural creativity in music, art, and literature centered in Harlem, New York. Langston Hughes was one of the movement's most famous poets and leaders.
Period: The Great Depression
Period of worldwide economic difficulty, in the USA, from about 1929 (Stock Market Crash) to 1941 (beginnings of World War II)
66. Causes of the Great Depression
Decline in world trade, High protective tariffs , Overproduction of consumer goods , Buying stock on margin (borrowing) and market speculation for quick profit, Very unequal distribution of wealth , Decline in agriculture prices , Severe drought in the southern plains (dust bowl) ,Stock Market Crash of 1929 ("Black Tuesday)
67. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
President when the Great Depression began. Hoover is criticized for allowing the Depression to continue. He was defeated when voters looked to the federal government for help.
68. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933 -1945)
Defeated Hoover in 1932. Implemented the New Deal to help with the Great Depression. He gave fireside chats on the radio to communicate with the American public.
69. Dust Bowl
Term used to describe the area of the Great Plains where heavy droughts had dried up the farmland. Many farmers lost their property and had to flee to California as migrant workers, described in John Steinbeck's novel "The Grapes of Wrath"
70. The New Deal
Roosevelt's program to fight the Great Depression. It was a series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936, and drastically enlarged the size of American government.
71. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Insurance for people's bank accounts. One of the lasting reforms of the New Deal.
72. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Government agency that regulated stock market, a New Deal reform
73. Social Security Act
The most important act of the New Deal. Social Security provides unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, old age pensions, and insurance for families.
74. FDR Battles the Supreme Court
The Supreme court had declared several New Deal programs unconstitutional. FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs. This was known as court packing.
Period: World War II
started in 1939 with German invasion of Poland, for the USA, War years are 1941-1945.
75. World War II (1941-1945)
December 7, 1941, Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Congress, with citizen's support, declared war on Japan. USA becomes a global superpower during the conflict.
76. Harry S. Truman
President of the U.S. during the last months of WWII. He made the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan to end the war sooner and save U.S. service member lives.
77. General Dwight D. Eisenhower
U.S. General in Europe during WWII. He was in charge of the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day). He later served as the 34th President from 1953 until 1961.
78. General Douglas McArthur
U.S. General in charge of the Allied forces in the Pacific Ocean. Promised that " I shall return" after losing Philippines to Japan, and did.
79. General George Patton
Daring, able commander, Tank warfare expert, outspoken U.S. General. Profane, but admired by his troops, he led the U.S. Third Army and helped to liberate Paris.
80. General Omar Bradley
Calm, able, General who led the US 1st Army during the Invasion of Normandy. Known as the "Soldier's General".
81. General George Marshall
Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army during WWII. He oversaw all the military operations in the War in Europe. After the war, he was responsible for the Marshall Plan to help rebuild war-ravaged Europe after WWII.
82. Chester Nimitz
Soft spoken navy commander (Coral Sea, Midway, Solomon Islands, Philippine Sea, Leyte Guld, Iwo Jima, Okinawa). Overall Allied commander of the entire Pacific. From Fredricksburg, Texas.
83. Vernon J. Baker
awarded Medal of Honor in 1997 for heroic acts in Italy in 1945 (Black segregated 92nd infantry division)
84. CAUSES of WWII:
Harsh treatment of Germany after WWI, The rise of dictators, fascism, extreme nationalism, and totalitarianism in Europe and Japan (Nazi Party in Germany), Germany's invasion of Poland, Germany's aerial attacks on Great Britain, Japans' invasion of China, Japans' attack on Pearl Harbor
85. Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)
On December 7th 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor forcing the U.S. to enter the war.
86. Battle of Midway (1942)
Major turning point in the war in the Pacific. This pivotal battle dealt a severe blow to the Japanese Navy, after US sank 4 Japanese carrier ships.
87. Island Hopping
Allied naval strategy to reach Japan by taking one island at a time. Primarily focused on islands with airstrips.
88. The Atomic Bomb (1945)
Powerful weapon dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. War ended with surrender of Japanese in 1945.
89. The Holocaust
The mass murder of 6 million Jews and others in Nazi concentration camps. Led to the establishment of Israel by the United Nations in 1948.
90. Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)
( June 6th 1944) General Dwight D. Eisenhower led the Allied invasion of Axis-controlled France across the English Channel during WW2. The landings were part of the Allied invasion of Normandy. aka Operation Overlord, the invasion opened a second front against the Nazis, and was the largest seaborne invasion in history.
91. Internment of Japanese Americans
After FDR issued Executive Order 9066, over 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced to relocate by the US Army to crowded prison camps were they were detained during WWII. Raised questions about government authority during war. Supreme Court found internment legal in "Korematsu vs. US"
92. War Bonds
Individual Americans making a loan to the US so that the government can better support the war- an act of patriotism during WW2.
93. Victory Gardens
raising your own food in order to help the war effort.
94. Tuskegee Airmen
flew thousands of missions in Mediterranean with skill, success; WWII's segregated infantry, facilitated desegregation of military by Truman (1948)
95. The Flying Tigers
Civilian volunteer fighter pilots who led first U.S. attack on Japanese in China; boosted U.S. morale.
96. The Navajo Code Talkers
were a group of Native Americans who served in the United States Marine Corps during World War II and provided an unbreakable code based on their language that helped carryout top secret important missions.
97. US Office of War Information
Promoted Patriotism, Victory Gardens, recycling, conservation (material for war effort) purchase of war bonds , volunteerism, women at work, propaganda, etc...
Period: Post-WWII Politics
A period of prosperity, fueled by economy driven by military spending and research and a move to suburbs, gives way to increasing government involvement in American's lives, economic struggles, and finally to scandal and public mistrust of Washington.
98. GI Bill
A 1944 law that gave military veterans financial, education benefits, and helped them secure housing.
Many people moved to communities built on the outskirts of major cities known as suburbs. Levittown, New York was the first suburb community.
100. The Baby Boom
The period from the end of WWII through mid-1960s was marked by unusually high birth rates. Baby boomers continue to impact American culturally and economically.
101. Rock N' Roll
A form of music that became popular in the 1950s - sometimes seen as rebellion against the conformity of the decade.
102. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The United States' space agency that sent Americans into outer Space. In 1969, the U.S. landed the first man on the moon, affirming the US lead in the "space race" with Soviet Union.
LBJ's program that addressed America's social problems including health care (Medicare for citizens over 65) , civil rights, and urban decay. Caused a profound rise in government's involvement in American life.
104. Johnson's Civil Rights Record
Civil rights was a focal point during the Johnson administration and many laws were passed during his Presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963: (Next 3 slides)
105. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made discrimination based on race, religion, or national origin in public places illegal
106. The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Eliminated literacy tests for voters
107. The Civil Rights Act of 1968
Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing aka "Fair Housing Act".
The Watergate scandal was a political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. The scandal eventually led to the resignation of Richard Nixon, the President of the United States, on August 9, 1974, the only resignation of a U.S. President.
Period - The Cold War
from about 1946 to 1991 - an intense competition between two superpowers - the USA and the Soviet Union. While usually waged through diplomacy, on several occasions the Cold War took the world nearly to nuclear war.
The policy that the U.S. should prevent the Communism from spreading to other nations. Expressed in US involvement in both Korea and Vietnam Wars.
110. United Nations (1945)
International organization formed after WWII to serve as a peacekeeper in world conflicts. The USA, China, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union are the 5 permanent veto-holding members of the Security Council. Also created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to help with reconstruction and economic development.
111. Truman Doctrine (1947)
U.S. policy that gave military and economic aid to countries threatened by communism.
112. Marshall Plan (1948)
Program proposed by General George Marshall to help European countries rebuild after WWII. The U.S. offered economic aid to the war-torn countries, including former enemies. Also helped countries resist communism.
113. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1959)
A military alliance formed between the U.S., Canada, and ten Western European countries. In response to Soviet Union creating a block of satellite countries that it controlled in Eastern Europe.
114. Berlin Airlift (June 1948 - May 1949)
U.S. operation that flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet Union set up a blockade in 1948.
115. Korean War (1950 - 1953)
Korea was divided at the 38th parallel after WWII. North Korea invaded the South to unify under one communist state. With the United Nations, the USA entered to prevent communism from spreading. War turns into a stalemate and ends with armistice with Korea still divided between a northern communist state and democratic south. President Truman had to fire General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination and insisting the USA use nuclear weapons to end the conflict.
House of Un-American Activities Committee. Investigated individuals in the government and Hollywood for alleged Communist connections.
117. Venona Papers
Decoded soviet messages and proved that suspected Communist spies were truly Spies (Julius Rosenberg and Alger Hiss)
118. Nuclear Arms Race
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their allies during the Cold War.
119. Joseph McCarthy
Senator from Wisconsin who became famous by accusing people of being Communists without providing evidence. Discredited after accusing the Army and even President Eisenhower of being communists.
120. McCarthyism (1954)
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism. It was named after Joseph McCarthy.
121. Sputnik (1957)
The first man-made satellite to be launched into outer space. Sputnik was a success for the Soviet Union and a symbolic success for Communism. This caused the U.S. to increase interest in its space program and resulted in USA spending billions on math and science education. See "Space Race"
122. Space Race
was a mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (USA) for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority.
123.Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
A standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when it was discovered that the Soviets were installing nuclear missiles pointed at the U.S. in May 1962
124. Vietnam War (1954 - 1975)
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. At home, the American public was deeply divided over U.S. involvement in the war.
125. Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)
Congressional approval that gave LBJ the power to escalate the war in Vietnam.
126. The Tet Offensive (1968)
Was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnam against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. Political victory for North Vietnam and led to the credibility gap.
127. Domino Theory
The belief that if a nearby nation became communist, then surrounding nations would do the same.
128. War Powers Resolution of (1973)
A law passed in 1973 that limited the President's right to send troops into battle without Congressional approval.
129. Master Sergeant Raul (Roy) Perez Benavidez (August 5, 1935 - November 29, 1998)
was one of the Vietnam War's most decorated soldiers. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions in combat in South Vietnam on May 2, 1968. He was born in Lindenau near Cuero, Texas
130. The Credibility Gap
- Distrust in the government based on inconsistency from the United States government during the Vietnam War.
131. The Silent Majority
the U.S. citizens who supported President Nixon's policies but who were not politically vocal, outspoken, or active: considered by Nixon to constitute a majority of Americans.
Period: Civil Rights
Began in late 1940's with increased rights for African-American soldiers, spread with use of court cases and challenges to the Jim Crow South. In the late 1960's and 1970's, civil rights causes were taken up by women, American Indians, Hispanics, and others.
132. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court decision that upheld segregation and said that "separate but equal" facilities were legal.
133. Rosa Parks (February 4, 1913 - October 24, 2005)
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
134. Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 - February 21, 1965)
Black Muslim leader who argued for separation, not integration, and influenced the Black Power movement. He later moderated his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
135. Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 - April 4, 1968)
Civil Rights leader from the 1950s - 1960s who helped organize the Montgomery bus boycott to protest segregation. He organized the March on Washington where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. He was assassinated in 1968. King advocated peaceful protest and passive resistance.
136. Cesar Chavez (March 31, 1927 - April 23, 1993)
Was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW). He pushed for greater rights for migrant farm workers using non-violent means like boycotts and long marches.
American Indian Movement- A group of American Indians advocating for specific rights and pride in Native American culture - "Red Power". Group occupied both Alcatraz prison (1969) and the monument at Wounded Knee, South Dakota (1973) to protest widespread unemployment and poverty on reservations.
138. Black Panthers
Armed militant group organized by Huey Newton that rejected MLK Jr.'s nonviolent tactics in fighting for Civil rights. Along with SNCC, led by Stokley Carmichael, these groups advocated economic and racial separation from white culture.
139. Hector Garcia
Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.
140. Betty Friedan
Co-Founder of NOW, spokesperson of Feminism in 60s, wrote "The Feminine mystique" that said women were discontent with societal expectations of women.
141. Chicano Mural Movement
Built on early murals by artists like Diego Rivera, a public art movement that depicted Hispanic political views and heritage. It began in barrios (ethnic neighborhoods) in the 1960s, and provided a visual presence for people who felt they lacked representation in local politics.
142. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
A landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students were unconstitutional.
143.Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made discrimination based on race, religion, or national origin in public places illegal and required employers to hire on an equal opportunity basis.
144. Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
Supreme Court ruling that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population.
145. George Wallace
Alabama governor "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" Ran for president 68 and won Deep South electoral votes.
146. Lester Maddox
Sold his restaurant rather than serve blacks; became governor of Georgia and believed that integration was "ungodly...Un-American."
147. Orval Faubus
Arkansas governor used state guard troops to block integration of Little Rock Central High School in 1957 caused Eisenhower to send federal troops to protect 9 black students from angry whites
148. Southern Democrats
Tried to block civil rights legislation (e.g. Strom Thurmond); from States in the Deep South they tried to preserve the racial "status quo" (they wanted things to stay the same in the Jim Crow South). aka "Dixiecrats"
149. Voting Rights Act of 1965
banned literacy tests and unapproved voting procedures; added federal election examiners.
150. Mendez v. Westminster
segregation of Mexican students in California violated equal protection clause of 14th amendment
151. Hernandez v. Texas
exclusion of jurors based on race violates the 14th amendment
152. Delgado v. Bastrop ISD
segregation of Mexican students in Texas violated equal protection clause of 14th amendment.
153. Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
Forced Texas to better fund schools in poor areas. aka "Robin Hood" case
154. Sweatt v. Painter
separate black law school facilities at University of Texas were inherently unequal. a precedent for Brown v. Board of Education
155. Thurgood Marshall
Chief Counsel for NAACP, won many key civil Rights cases including Brown v. Board of education and the first African American Supreme Court Justice. (1967)
Period: 1970's to 2000
156. Affirmative Action
Sometimes known as positive discrimination, refers to policies that take factors including race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group in areas of employment, education, and business.
easing of tensions with China and the Soviet Union during the Nixon administration
158. Iran Hostage Crisis
After Carter withdrew support for pro- U.S. shah of Iran (for human rights abuses) , Iranians overthrew him(1978-9) Carter allowed him into the US for medical treatment; angry militants seized 66 at U.S. Embassy in Tehran; 52 held until 1981; rescue attempt was botched(aircraft crashed) ; made Carter and the U.S. look weak and incapable
Belief that tax cuts (Mainly for the rich) leave more money in the private sector for investment/job growth/ which has a "trickle down" (to non-rich) which leads to better revenue and GDP
160. Peace through strength
Defense spending up 135% during Reagan years while negotiations took place between Reagan and Gorbachev.
161. Camp David Accords
1978 agreement brokered by Carter between Israel and Egypt; led to first peace treaty between Israel and Arab nation.
162. Iran Contra Affair
"Reagan Doctrine" vowed support for anticommunist "freedom fighters" (e.g. El Salvador, Nicaragua, Grenada, Afghanistan) scandal erupted when press reported in 1986 that the U.S. had illegally sold arms to Iran (in exchange for Iran's help in releasing hostages in Lebanon) and then funneled money to Nicaraguan rebels (contras)
163. Marines in Lebanon
Islamists suicide bombers killed 239 marines at barracks in Beirut in 1983 (During Lebanese Civil War) Reagan promised retaliation against any nation that sponsored terrorist attacks
164. Phyllis Schlafly
long time conservative activist/lawyer/author/speaker, successfully led opposition against the Equal Rights Amendment.
165. Heritage foundation
conservative think tank formed in 1973 that came up with legislation that would be pursued when republicans took the majority of the house.
Conservative lobby group led by the Reverend Jerry Fallwell to unseat liberal elected officials.
or National Rifle Association. A strong political organization that lobbies for 2nd Amendment gun ownership rights
168. Persian Gulf War
In 1990 Saddam Hussein/ Iraq invaded Kuwait (key oil exporter to the U.S.); President George H.W.Bush (41) /U.S. led 28 nation UN coalition; bombed Iraq, then ground troops drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait, lopsided war due to U.S. technology.
169. Kosovo (or Balkans) Crisis
Long time ethnic hatreds in Yugoslavia led provinces to seek independence (opposed by Serbia); Civil Wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo; Clinton/ U.S. debated response to genocide, led NATO bombing, held negotiations, provided peace keeping troops, Yugoslavia broke up.
September 11th 2001, Al Qaeda Terrorists (radical Islamists led by Osama Bin Laden) hijacked commercial planes then crashed into the World trade center, Pentagon. Showed that the U.S. was a target for intense hatred and terrorism.
171. Global war On Terror
global effort declared by George W. Bush (43) with willing nations against terrorist groups/supporting governments beginning with AL Qaeda—Include Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Now defines much American foreign policy - a large shift since the Soviet focused years of the old Cold War.