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Intro to Philosophy
Terms in this set (43)
What does the word "philosophy" originally mean?
the Love of Wisdom
What kind of issue wee the earliest Greek philosophers concerned with?
What are atoms?
Smallest unit/particle that makes up everything. Internal and cannot be destroyed. Constantly moving.
According to atom theory, do human beings have immortal souls? Why or why not?
Atoms will exist forever (immortal) but soul is not immortal
What are Yin and Yang? What are 5 elements?
Two opposite cosmic forces that depend on each other. Fire, Water, Earth, Metal
What is ch'i (qi)? How does Chinese medicine explain illness and health in terms of ch'i and yin and yang?
Vital energy and force of life. It flows through the body. If you are sick, your chi is not flowing well, it is blocked and you are out of balance. It is about balance and energy.
What is Sophists' main concern?
Humans. Wisdom is knowledge of skill and makes a person successful.
According to Sophists, is there any absolute moral truth? Why or Why not? Does Socrates agree with the Sophists on this matter?
No absolute moral truths for sophists. Humans decide everything (right and wrong), morality comes from human needs. Morality is relative to culture in society. Socrates does not agree he thinks there is absolute moral truths.
What's Socrates; art of discourse (Socrates' method)?
Questioning and debating with people and have them come with self contradiction/realization. Therefore, they second guess and change answer.
According to Socrates, does anyone knowingly do wrong? Why or Why not?
No one does wrong knowingly because everyone wants to be happy. Doing right makes people happy. Doing wrong makes you unhappy. People will not do wrong if they know they are wrong.
For Plato, what is the relationship between the world of ideas and the world of senses?
World of ideas is more real or original. Physical world of senses is a copy or shadow of the world of ideas. Therefore, they are less real and less perfect than world of ideas.
What is Plato's view on women?
High opinion of women he believes has the same rationality as men. Rare in ancient time.
Why does Plato maintain that what we call learning is really recollection? Where is our knowledge from?
Knowledge is to recall what soul already knows to help recall what you forgot. Learning is a recollection. Knowledge is not from experience that only helps to remember.
What is Aristotle's criticism of Plato's theory of ideas (forms)? What does Aristotle mean by "form" horse?
Aristotle things Plato's theory is wrong. The form is not somewhere far away or separate, how you make the form is sum of what you observe. No world ideas of form. All we have is physical form. Form horse is not different from particular horse. Form of horse is characteristics and ability of horse. Form is in particular horse.
What does Aristotle mean by "each being is a unity of form and substance (matter)"?
Everything includes both form and matter. Not one or the other.
Does Aristotle agree with Plato in regard to the origin of knowledge? Why or Why not?
No, Aristotle believes we gain knowledge from experience and then go to reason. Aristotle disagrees. Plato believes it comes from reason alone and Aristotle believes it comes from experience.
For Aristotle, given the relationship between the function of X and a good X, what is a good human being? How are human function and happiness related.
If you know the function of knife is to cut, a good knife is one that cuts well. If you know the function of x, the good x is the one that functions well. The function of something decides if it is good or not. This means a good human being is one that can reason well. Someone that has a good rational life. Because that is the function of a human being. A human being who function well is good, and good one is happy. Therefore, human function and happiness are related.
For Aristotle, what is virtue?
Virtue is the traits and qualities that help it function. If a knifes function is to cut, the virtue of the knife would be the sharpness. That quality that makes a particular thing function well.
Does Aristotle believe that a moral virtue is a mean between two extremes? Are moral virtues inborn?
Yes. Moral virtue is the mean between two extremes. Moral virtues are not inborn. Repeated practice and good habit are how we form moral virtues.
According to empiricism, where is knowledge from? What is the rationalist view on the source of knowledge?
Knowledge is from experience. Primary source of knowledge is experience. Rationalists believe in innate idea...
According to Descartes, are senses the reliable foundation for knowledge? Why or Why not? What does his dream argument show? what does his evil genius argument show?
No, senses are not reliable because senses give you deceptive information. If senses fail you once, you can not trust them anymore. His dream argument shows that senses can not tell you the truth. His evil genius argument shows that we need to doubt everything because existence of evil genius is equally likely as a god.
Why does Descartes believe that he is certain that "I exist"? What kind of "I" does he talk about?
The fact that he thinks, the fact that he doubts, he needs to exist to do those things. The "i" is the thinking being.
Why does Descartes need to prove the existence of God?What are Descartes' two arguments for the existence of God?
If there is a god I can guarentee that I know something besides that I exist. The two arguments for the existence of god are:
1) we have an idea of god that he is perfect. But we are not perfect, so we can not create idea of perfect god. This idea is not then created by us, so it is created by the perfect being himself. This is by cause/
2) From the definition of god, he is perfect. Existence is one of the perfections. If he does not exist, how is he perfect. This is by definition
Why do we regard Descartes as a dualist?
He believes body and mind are seperate beings.
What does locke mean by "the mind is an empty slate before we perceive anything"?
Before we experience anything, we don't know anything. Knowledge comes from experience. Without it, we know nothing. He does not believe in innate idea.
For Locke, what distinguishes primary qualities from secondary qualities?
Primary qualities are not in our mind, they are in the things themselves. The secondary qualities are mind dependent. We use our senses interacting with the object to produce a secondary quality.
According to Locke, what are the two fountains of knowledge (two parts of experience) from where all ideas spring?
Sensation and reflection. Sensation from senses and reflection is the through process in mind.
Does Locke believe in the existence of God? What is his argument for or against the existence of god?
Yes, his argument is: if i exist, something else exists, then things are caused by other things. But nothing is caused by nothing. There must be something that caused other things.
What are natural rights advocated by Locke? What is his theory of the separation of three powers?
Life, Liberty, Property. He believes in the separation of legislative, judicial, and executive branches.
Does Kant think that we can have certain knowledge of things "in themselves"? Why or Why not?
We cant believe things the way they really are. We never can know because we perceive the things through the way it looks to us through time, space, and the law of causation.
According to Kant what is the nature of time and space?
Time and space are not in the thing. It is in your mind. It is the form through which you perceive the things. It is subjective internal form of perception.
For Kant, is the law of causation part of our makeup? Why or Why not?
Yes, because that is where we perceive the things.
Why does Kant not think that our reason can prove the immortal soul, Gods existence, and man's free will? Why should we postulate these three?
What is Kant's first formula of "categorical imperative?" What does that formula mean?
Only act upon the action where you would hope everyone else would take the same action.
What is Kant's second formula of "categorical imperative"?
Treat humanity as an end, not as the means. End= respect human dignity. Means= dont treat people as a means for something unless you treat them as the end also.
why is Kant's ethics sometimes called "duty ethics"?
When you do something in accordance with categorical imperative you also need to do it because it is your duty, not because it will help you and others, but because it is your duty.
According to utilitarianism, what is the right action?
the right action is the one that brings about the most happiness to the greatest number of people.
Is Mill a utilitarian? What does mill mean by "happiness"?
Yes, happiness is pleasure.
Does Mill believe that ones own happiness is more important than that of others?
No, yours is just as important but not more important.
Do Epicureans believe that pleasure is the final goal of life? Do they degrade humans?
How does Mill refute the objection against utilitarianism that is a "doctrine worthy of swine"?
Pleasure of human and pleasure of animals are not the same. There are 2 kinds of pleasures. Humans are capable of both and animals are only capable of one.
For Mill, are two kinds of pleasures different in quantity or in quality. Why does he think "it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"?
two different pleasures are different in quality. To be a human is better because they are capable of the higher type of pleasure.
For Mill, are two kinds of pleasures different in quantity of quality? Why does he think "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"?
In quality. To be a human is better because they are capable of the higher type of pleasure.
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