80 terms

MTERM1_2

STUDY
PLAY
The science of the interaction between atoms and molecules is called
chemistry
The use of microbes to remove an environmental pollutant
bioremediation
Bacteria degrade organic
matter in sewage.
bioremediation
Bacteria degrade or detoxify
pollutants such as oil and
mercury.
bioremediation
The process of making or breaking bonds between atoms.
chemical reaction
A chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it
releases is called an
endergonic reaction
meaning that energy is directed inward
endergonic reaction
chemical reaction
that releases more energy than it absorbs is called an
exergonic reaction
meaning that energy is directed outward.
exergonic reaction
When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules, the reaction is called a
synthesis reaction
A + B => AB
synthesis reaction
All synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex
organic molecules from simpler ones.
anabolism
is the synthesis of molecules in a cell.
anabolism
Occur when a molecule is split into smaller molecules,
ions, or atoms.
Decomposition Reactions
AB => A + B
Decomposition Reactions
the decomposition reactions in a cell
Catabolism
All decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown
of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.
Catabolism
A molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen.
organic compound
A small molecule that does not contain carbon and
hydrogen
inorganic compound
An arrangement of atoms in an organic molecular that is responsible for most of the chemical properties of that molecule.
functional group
A large organic molecule.
macromolecule
A small molecule that collectively combines to form polymers.
monomer
A simple sugar consisting of 3-7 carbon atoms.
monosaccharide
A sugar consisting of two simple sugars, or monosaccharides
disaccharide
A carbohydrate consisting of 8 or more monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis.
polysaccharide
can be broken down by hydrolysis.
Disaccharides
a polymer of two sugars repeating many times.
Chitin
A type of polymers
of glucose that are covalently bonded differently.. Used in beer
Starch
Are the primary components of cell membranes.
Lipids
Consist of C, H, and O.
Lipids
Are non-polar and insoluble in water.
Lipids
Simple Lipids Called fats
triglycerides
contain glycerol and fatty
acids; formed by dehydration synthesis
triglycerides;
Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acids.
triglycerides
A simple lipid consisting of glycerol and three fatty acids.
triglycerides
Are essential in cell structure and function.
Proteins
Consist of subunits called amino acids.
Proteins
Enzymes are ______ that speed chemical reactions.
proteins
Transporter _____ move chemicals across
membranes.
proteins
Flagella are made of
proteins
Some bacterial toxins are
proteins
between amino acids are formed by dehydration synthesis.
Peptide Bonds
A bond joining the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of a second amino acid with the loss of a water molecule.
Peptide Bonds
A macromolecule consisting of nucleotides; DNA and RNA are
nucleic acids.
nucleic acid
Has deoxyribose
DNA
Exists as a double helix
DNA
ATCG
Adenine, thymine, Cytosine, Guanine. = components of DNA
A hydrogen bonds with T
DNA
C hydrogen bonds with G
DNA
The class of nucleic acids that comprises messenger
RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Has ribose
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Is single-stranded
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A hydrogen bonds
with U
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
C hydrogen bonds
with G
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Has ribose, adenine, and three phosphate groups.
ATP
Is made by dehydration synthesis.
ATP
Is broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful energy
for the cell.
ATP
Location of Phospholipid in Eukaryote
Plasma Membrane (Phospholipid bilayer)
Location of Phospholipid in
Prokaryotes
cytoplasmic membrane same on Eurkaryote.
An instrument with two sets of lenses that uses visible light as the source of illumination.
compound light microscope
(LM)
compound light microscope (LM)
A microscope that uses electrons instead of light to produce an image.
electron microscope
A method of staining microorganisms with a single basic dye..an aqueous or alcohol solution
simple stain
may be used to hold the stain or coat the specimen to enlarge it.
mordant
chemical is added to the solution to intensify the stain; such an additive is called...example
mordant...iodine
A stain that distinguishes objects on the basis of reactions to the staining procedure.
differential stain
react differently with
different kinds of bacteria and thus can be used to distinguish
them.
differential stain
most frequently used for bacteria are the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain.
differential stain
The purple dye and the iodine combine in the cytoplasm of each bacterium and color it dark violet or purple
gram-positive
bacteria that lose the dark
violet or red color after decolorization are classified as
gram-negative
4 Gram Stain Procedures:
1. Application of Crystal Violet. (Purple dye)
2. Application of Iodine (Mordant)
3. Alcohol Wash (decolorization)
4. Application of Safranin (counterstain)
simultaneously
kills the microorganisms and fIxes them to the slide.
Fixing
Before the microorganisms can be stained, however, they must be
fixed
preserves various parts of microbes in their natural state with only minimal distortion
Fixing
Cells that retain a basic
stain in the presence of
acid-alcohol are called
Acid-Fast Stain
binds strongly only to bacteria that have a waxy material in their cell
walls
acid-fast stain
identify all bacteria in the
genus Mycobacterium, including the two important pathogens tuberculosis, leprosy.
acid-fast stain
useful for capsules.
Negative staining
A procedure that results in colorless bacteria against a
stained background.
Negative staining
requires a
mordant to make the flagella wide enough to see.
Flagella staining