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Honors Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes

Sharon SFHS Honors Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Quiz
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if s and p sublevels are full
outer level is considered full
outer level full
most stable situation
8 electrons in outer level
makes an atom become unreactive
helium
exception because it only has one full orbital
if it can't have full outer level, atoms likes to have half filled orbitals
these are slightlt more stable (less reactive) than other choices
Cr
[Ar] 4s1 3d5
Cu
[Ar] s1 3d10
cation
positive ion
anion
negative ion
why do atoms become ions
to become more stable (octet rule)
what does the 1st column do?
lose one election
what do metallic elements do when forming ions
lose electios
positive ions are
smaller then corresponding neutral atoms because it lost one energy level (goes down a shell energy level, decreasing the size) positive char (p) hasnt changed but pulling on fewer electrons
what do halogens do
gain 1 electron
nonmentals do what when forming ions
gain electrons
negative ions
bigger than corresponding neutral atoms because there are more electrons crowding
metal activity
inc toward bottom left (Fr)
nonmetal activity
inc toward top right but skips noble gases (F)
first ionization energy
energy required to remove electrons from gaseous atom
x(g) + E ~>
x+(g) + e- (E needed)
units (KJ/mol)
ionzation energy to right
increases to right because inc nuclear charge (or more protons)
ionization energy column trend
decreases down a column because electron is greater distance from nucleus, valence electrons are shielded from pull of nucleus by core electron
ionization energy exception trend
electron from full or 1/2 full sublevel more stable than trend so greater ionization energy
metal ionization energy
low 1st IE; takes little E to remove e-
nonmetal ionization energy
high 1st IE
electronegativity
relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element
highest electronegativity
Flourine
electronegativity upper right
increases to upper right (not noble gases) b/c less distance from nucleus to outer reacting electrons, shielding effect less so it does not affect reacting electron so increases at top of group; more protons in nucleus so more pull for outer electron as go across row to right
electron affinities
the energy change that accompanies the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
x(g) + e- ~>
x-(g) + E (usually energy given off)
electron affinity across a period
across a period inc to right because increased nuclear char (#p) but if stable will cause deviation
negative electron affinity means
more stable as is, does not want more electrons (must add E to force it to take that electron)
metals electron affinity
gives off less E so smaller electron affinity some even neg values