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Medical Terminology Chapter 5 Studyguide

This is a study guide for Medical Terminology for Chapter 5.
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vas/o-
blood vessel
ven/o-
vein
angi/o-
blood vessel; lymphatic vessel
vascul/o-
blood vessel
ather/o-
softy, fatty substance
varic/o-
varix; varicose vein
anerurysm
area of dilation and weakness in the wall of an artery
fibrillation
arrhythmia in which there is a very fast, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium
bradycardia
arrhythmia in which the heart beats too slowly
-ose
full of
-ous
pertaining to
-oma
tumor; mass
-itis
inflammation of
circulat/o-
movement in a circular movement
purkinje fiber
modified cardiac muscle fibers in the subendothelial tissue, concerned with conducting impulses through the heart.
lipid profile
test that provides a comprehensive picture of the levels in the blood of cholesterol and triglycerides and their lipoprotein carriers (HDL, LDL, VLDL)
chordae tendineae
ropelike connective tissues attached to their valve leaflets
coronary arteries
artery that carries oxygenated blood to the myocardium
how often does the heart contract
at least once every second to pump blood throughout the body
how does the heart contract
by the conduction system of the heart, the SA node initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat, the electrical impulse then travels through the AV node, through the bundle of HIS and into the right and left bundle branches that end in a network of nerves called the Purkinje fibers
rrhythm/o-
rhythm
cardiac catheterization
procedure performed to study the anatomy and pressures in the heart
systole
the upper number, represents the force of contractions of the ventricles
MUGA
a nuclear medicine test that evaluates how well the ventricular wall of the heart moves when it contracts
electrophysiologic study
procedure to map the heart's conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia
pericardium
outermost layer of the heart
ECG
electrocardiography- a procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart
EKG
electrocardiography- a procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart
What is medical word for "an area of dead tissue"?
necrosis
What is medical word for "blocked oxygen flow"?
...
What is medical word for "diseased heart muscle"?
cardiomyopathy
What is medical word for "an overactive heart muscle"?
...
What is medical word for "mass/vein that is prolapsed"?
...
What is a cardiothoracic surgeon?
it is a person that does surgical procedures pertaining to the heart and thoracic cavity
What is medical word for "tumor that is cancerous"?
...
What is medical word for "mass that is a soft, fatty substance"?
atheroma
What is medical word for "tumor that is hard"?
...
diastole
the resting period between contractions
myocardium
the muscular layer of the heart
atri/o-
atrium (upper heart chamber)
valv/o-
valve
lipid/o-
lipid (fat)
repolarization
to end a contraction of the heart, positive potassium ions diffuse out of the cell, while molecular pumps move positive sodium and some calcium ions out of the cell and move the rest of the calcium ions into storage within the cell
cardi/o-
heart
When and why would digitalis be used?
to treat congestive heart failure because it decreases the heart rate and strengthens the heart's contractions
When and why would thrombolytic be used?
to treat a blood clot that is blocking blood flow through an artery because thrombolytic drugs lyse (breaks apart) a clot
When and why would aspirin be used?
to prevent heart attacks because it prevents blood clots from forming by keeping platelets from sticking together
When and why would a antibiotic be used?
...
depolarization
to begin a contraction of the heart, an impulse from the SA node changes the permeability of the myocardial cell membrane.
veins
blood vessel that carries blood from the body back to the heart
arteries
blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body
tricuspid valve-
between the right atrium and right ventricle, opens when the right atrium contracts to allow blood flow into the right ventricle then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the right atrium
pulmonary valve-
between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk, opens when the right ventricle contracts to allow blood flow into the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the right ventricle
mitral (bicuspid) valve-
between the left atrium and left ventricle, opens when the left atrium contracts to allow blood flow into the left ventricle then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium
aortic valve-
between the left ventricle and the aorta, opens when the left ventricle contracts to allow blood flow into the aorta then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle
capillaries
are smallest blood vessels in the body
vasculature
refers to the blood vessels associated with a particular organ
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
atrium
small upper chamber of the heart
bypass graft
an autograft consisting of a segment of vein or artery grafted into place in a bypass.
phleb/o-
vein
arrhythmia
any type of irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart
hypertriglyceridemia
an elevated level of triglycerides in the blood
sphygmomanometer
instrument used to measure the pressure of the pulse by using a thin inflatable cuff
symptoms of angina pectoris
pain can be crushing, squeezing, heaviness, or pressure-like sensation in the chest, with pain extending up into the jaw, teeth, neck, or down the left arm, often with extreme sweating(diaphoresis) and a sense of doom
The two major veins of the body are the superior and inferior
venae cavae
The combining form steth/o- means
chest
Patients diagnosed with HTN may be prescribed an antihypertensive drug to combat the more than normal pressure.
true
The _______ artery brings oxygenated blood to the upper leg.
femoral
The femoral artery brings oxygenated blood to the
leg.
The first arteries that branch off the aorta and bring oxygenated blood to the heart muscle are the ________ arteries.
coronary
The inferior tip of the heart is known as the ________.
apex
In a PTCA, the catheter is first inserted percutaneously, or through the _____.
skin
In coronary artery bypass grafting, a part of the ______ vein is harvested from the leg and sutured in to bypass the blockage in the coronary artery.
sabhenous
The combining form ventricul/o- means
ventricle
If an EKG tracing shows bigeminy, there was a repeating pattern of ______.
a normal contraction then a premature contraction
A healthcare professional will inform the patient who is scheduled to have a TEE that the catheter will be inserted into his/her ___________.
esophagus
The myocardium is thickest in the ________ ventricle because it must work the hardest to pump blood to the entire body.
left
A digitalis drug such as digoxin is prescribed for
congestive heart failure
A coronary angioplasty is the process of reshaping by surgery of a blood vessel.
true
A paramedic notifies the hospital that the ambulance is bringing in a patient with a suspected AMI. This means the patient may have had a heart _________.
attack
A/An ___________ is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the heart.
cardiologist
What is the largest blood vessel?
artery
What is a valvulotome?
is an instrument used to cut a valve.
An antiarrhythmic drug is prescribed for patients with
heart rhythm problems.
Which layer of the heart is known as the muscular layer?
myocardium
What is an uncomfortable sensation felt in the chest during a premature contraction of the heart?
palpitation
Near the knee joint, the femoral artery becomes the ______ artery.
popliteal
The resting period between contractions of the heart is known as
diastole
Which word parts do you need to build a medical word that means inflammation of a vein?
-itis which means inflammation of and phleb/o- which means vein
In the pelvic cavity, the abdominal aorta ends as it splits in two (bifurcation) to form the right and left ______ arteries.
illac
Tachycardia is the opposite of _______.
bradycardia
The smaller branches of an artery are called the __________.
arterioles
The cause of essential hypertension is
unknown
An angiography is a/an ________.
process of recording a blood vessel
Which nuclear medicine procedure is also known as a radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) or gated blood pool scan?
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan
The combining form arteri/o- means:
artery
What is a chronic condition in which an enlarged heart cannot pump sufficient amounts of oxygenated blood to the body?
congestive heart failure
Structures that help regulate the blood flow between the artia and the ventricles are called the heart ________.
valves
What are vital signs?
temperature, pulse, blood pressure and respirations
The part of the pericardium that is next to the wall of a cavity is the ________ pericardium.
parietal
The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and the ________, an irregularly shaped, central area between the lungs.
mediastinum
hypertension
elevated blood pressure
cardiomegaly is the medical word for:
heart enlargement
A baby with an atrial septal defect has a hole in the interatrial ___________.
septum
A patient with left-sided heart failure would most likely be treated with two types of drugs: a diuretic drug to remove edema from the tissues and a/an ________ drug to strengthen heart contractions.
digitalis
In the medical word sphygmomanometer, the combining form man/o- means _____.
thin