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32 terms

AP Biology Ch 3 Water and Life

key vocab from chapter 3 AP Campbell Biology (9th edition)
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polar molecule
overall charge of the molecule is unequally distributed
cohesion
the intermolecular force, due to hydrogen bonding, that holds together the molecules in liquid water
adhesion
clinging of one substance to another due to hydrogen bonding
surface tension
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
heat
total amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter
temperature
a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules
calorie (cal)
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure (one cal equals 4.184 J)
kilocalorie (kcal)
a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure
joule (J)
one J equals 0.239 cal
specific heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C
heat of vaporization
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
evaporative cooling
process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state
solution
a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
hydrophilic
having a strong affinity for water
colloid
a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension
hydrophobic
lacking affinity for water
molarity
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
pH
declines as H+ concentration increases
buffer
substance that minimizes changes in the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution
ocean acidification
when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH
solution
a liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solute
the substance dissolved
hydration shell
the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
molecular mass
the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule
hydrogen ion
H+
hydroxide ion
OH-
the water molecule that lost a proton
hydronium ion
H3O+
acid
increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (0-6)
base
reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (8-14)