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key vocab from chapter 3 AP Campbell Biology (9th edition)

polar molecule

overall charge of the molecule is unequally distributed


the intermolecular force, due to hydrogen bonding, that holds together the molecules in liquid water


clinging of one substance to another due to hydrogen bonding

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid


total amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter


a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules

calorie (cal)

unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure (one cal equals 4.184 J)

kilocalorie (kcal)

a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure

joule (J)

one J equals 0.239 cal

specific heat

amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C

heat of vaporization

quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state

evaporative cooling

process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state


a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances


the dissolved substance in a solution

aqueous solution

a solution in which water is the solvent


having a strong affinity for water


a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension


lacking affinity for water


concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent


declines as H+ concentration increases


substance that minimizes changes in the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution

ocean acidification

when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH


a liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture of two or more substances


the substance dissolved

hydration shell

the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion

molecular mass

the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule

hydrogen ion


hydroxide ion

the water molecule that lost a proton

hydronium ion



increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (0-6)


reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (8-14)

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