Biology- Genetics (II)
Terms in this set (93)
A substitution where an amino acid is swapped for one of similar chemical properties.
A substitution where an amino acid is swapped for one with different chemical properties.
A sudden change in the structure or quantity of DNA in a cell
A mutation where one or more bases in a DNA sequence are affected.
A mutation where there are changes in the number or structure of whole chromosomes
A gene mutation where one base is swapped for another.
A gene and frameshift mutation where a base is removed from a DNA sequence
A gene and frameshift mutation where a base is inserted into a DNA sequence.
A mutation that changes how the triplet codes are read so that nearly every amino acid thereafter is incorrect.
A gene and frameshift mutation where a series of bases are repeated.
A substitution mutation that causes a codon to be replaced by a stop codon so the polypeptide is too short.
A substitution mutation where a codon is changed so that a different amino acid is produced.
A substitution mutation that has no effect on the polypeptide due to the degeneracy of the genetic code.
Gene mutation where a group of bases separate and rejoin the same place in the DNA sequence back-to-front.
Gene mutation where a group of bases on one chromosome separate and join a non-homologous chromosome.
A chromosome mutation where individual chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, so the individual has an extra or missing chromosome.
A chromosome mutation where all homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, so the organism has an extra set(s) of chromosomes.
Process by which cells become specialised
Undifferentiated cells capable of dividing into more cells of the same type.
Stem cells that can differentiate into any cell type
Stem cells that can differentiate into nearly all cell types.
Stem cells that can differentiate into a few cell types
Stem cells that can differentiate into only one cell type
Unipotent stem cells that have been changed back into pluripotent stem cells through the use of transcriptional factors
Complex formed when transcriptional factors and other co-factors bind to the promoter region.
A molecular machine that removes the introns from pre-mRNA.
A receptor found attached to transcriptional factors that is complementary to the shape of oestrogen.
Proteins that bind to the promoter region to initiate transcription.
A specific sequence of DNA found upstream of a target gene that initiates its transcription.
A region of DNA that stops transcription when RNA polymerase reaches it.
The study of the influence of environmental factors on heritable changes in the way DNA is coiled around histones.
The chemicals found on DNA and histones that form the epigenome.
The second layer to the genome made up of the tags found on DNA and histones.
The addition of CH3 groups to a molecule. In an epigenetic context, this molecule is cytosine.
The removal of COCH3 groups from a molecule
The addition of COCH3 groups to a molecule
When a gene is switched off due to increased methylation and deacetylation.
The enzyme that catalyses the methylation of cytosine
A way of preventing gene expression even when it has already been transcribed.
Short, double-stranded RNA segments totally complementary to target mRNAs that guide RISC to the mRNA to be cleaved.
Short, double-stranded RNAs where only the seed is complementary to the target mRNA.
An endonuclease protein that cleaves precursors to form siRNAs and microRNAs.
Protein that attaches to siRNAs or microRNAs and catalyses the cleavage of the target mRNA.
Strand of siRNA that binds to argonaut and the target mRNA.
The complex that cleaves target mRNA so it can't be translated and the gene cannot be expressed.
Part of a microRNA complementary to the target mRNA.
A group of diseases caused by a large mass of uncontrollably dividing cells with the potential to metastasise.
A large mass of uncontrollably dividing cells
A slow-growing tumour that doesn't metastasise
A rapidly growing, often life-threatening, tumour with the potential to metastasise
Substances produced by benign tumour cells that stick them together so the tumour remains localised
The process in which a malignant tumour spreads around the body to form secondary tumours
A healthy gene that stimulates mitosis
Signalling proteins that trigger a cell to divide by mitosis
A mutated version of a proto-oncogene that causes accelerated cell growth and division and can lead to cancer
Programmed cell death
Tissue death due to disease, injury or poor blood supply
Tumour suppressor gene
Gene that inhibits mitosis, repairs DNA damage and triggers apoptosis in damaged cells
Single base variations associated with disease
Short runs of repetitive base sequences used as genetic markers
Approach when a genome is split into sections, sequenced individually and then overlaid to piece them back together.
A technique used to separate DNA fragments based on size
A plasmid used for storing DNA fragments until needed
A technique involving ddNTPs to produce different length strands of DNA that can then be pieced together to get the original base sequence
Nucleotides with fluorescent bases that terminate DNA replication if incorporated into the new strand.
Bonding to form double-stranded DNA
DNA polymerase sourced from thermophilic bacteria. Used in Sanger sequencing and PCR.
Obtaining a specific gene from one organism and placing it into another organism.
Describes an organism that has had a gene introduced into it from another organism
Combined DNA from different sources
Medium which carries DNA from one cell to another
DNA made from mRNA using reverse transcriptase
Enzymes which cut DNA at a recognition sequence to leave blunt or sticky ends
Straight edges left behind on two DNA strands after it has been cut by a restriction endonuclease
Overhang of exposed, unpaired bases left behind on a DNA strand after it has been cut with a restriction endonuclease
The base sequence that determines where a restriction endonuclease cuts
Describes a recognition sequence with a base sequence that reads the same forwards and backwards
Machine that can synthesise a gene using oligonucleotides
Small, overlapping single strands of nucleotides used to assemble a gene in the gene machine
Within a living organism
Process in which bacterial cells take up a plasmid containing cDNA
Technique used to allow a plasmid to cross the cell surface membrane of a bacterium
Technique used to identify bacterial colonies that have been transformed
A gene that is easily identifiable so can be used to test whether a bacterium has taken up a plasmid with cDNA
"In glass" I.e. Outside a living organism
An in vitro method of amplifying a DNA sample
In gene therapy, this is adding genes to faulty DNA
In gene therapy, this is using a healthy dominant allele to mask the effects of a faulty recessive allele
Short, single-stranded sections of DNA used to test for the presence of a particular allele in a sample of DNA.
Using DNA probes to test for the presence of an allele in a patient's DNA.
Introns, the pattern of which is unique to almost every individual
A technique used to transfer DNA from gel electrophoresis to a nylon membrane
An analytical technique used to identify individuals based on their VNTR pattern.
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