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MCAT AAMC BIOLOGY
Terms in this set (147)
Sympathetic nervous system inhibits
peristalsis, secretion of digestive enzymes
Sympathetic nervous system increases
blood glucose concentration and causes dilation of the blood vessels that supply the deep muscles and internal organs which aids nutrient delivery
People have difficult time controlling blood glucose levels because of impaired production or response to insulin, resulting in increased blood glucose.
linked to depolarization
linked to repolarization
Changes form -60 mV to -70 mV in a cell are linked to
Blood flows from
arteries, to capillaries and then to veins
If flow is blocked at the venous side, blood will accumulate in the______, thus hydrostatic pressure would build in the __________, causing a net increase in fluid flow in the interstitial spaces.
Radioactive uracil would be in cell structures that contain
Identify cell cycle stage in which a stable, differentiated, nondividing cell will be found
G0 or G1
During inspiration, the diaphgragm _______ and pulls downard causing air to enter the lungs
Elevation of the rib cage during inspiration increases the _______
inside the chest cavity
____________ of pressure inside the pleural cavity causes air to move into the lungs
Contraction of the external intercostal rib muscles help the chest
In human females, mitotic divisons of oogenia occur between
fertilizaiton and birth only
stages of human life cycle order
fertilization, birth , puberty and menopause
Watson and Crick model of Dna
Nitrogenous bases form hydrogen bonds with each other in a 1:1 ratio.
Guanine pairs with
Adenine pairs with
Tissues that are exposed to the external environment have
mucosal membranes: nasal cavity, vagina, anus,gastroinestinaltract
Increased glucocorticoid and aldosterone secretion by the adrenal medula inceases
Antidiuretic hormone or vasopression secretion, increases
in tiems of stress and when the osmotic pressure in the blood stream increases as it would if the blood became more concentate due to loss of water
the probability that a statistical finding occurred due to chance, p is less than .05. reject null hypothesis
How does a retrovirus work?
integrates its DNA into host DNA during replication, mainly during cell divison, so it can integrate into chromosomes of cells that can divide
failure of sister chromatids to properly separate during mitosis or the failure of homologous chromosomes to properly separate during meiosis (lethal)
once a therapeutic gene has been integrated into a target cell's DNA, the retroviral DNA will most likely persist in the cell in a __________________form.
Reverse transcriptase _______ retroviral DNA; it does not translate retroviral DNA
Key step of integration of the viral DNA into host Dna
binding of the retrovirus protein envelope to receptors on the surface of the target cell
The major difference between RNA viruses and retroviruses is that retroviral genomes get
reverse transcribed into DNA
Simple RNA virus is directly transcribed into
What is the benefit of the repressor being constitutively produced in lac operon?
The bacteria does not want to expend energy creating lactose metabolizing enzymes if lactose is not available.
RNAs that encode for more than one gene.
Polycistronic messages often contain genes involved in the same pathway, therefore it allows E. coli to regulate several functionally related genes _____________
at the same time
Mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Gene mutations that involve changes in one or a few nucleotides, transition can result in point mutations
The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. cannot lead to either a frame-shift mutation, or a point mutation.
missense point mutation
a single-base substitution in which a different amino acid is inserted
results in reduced or abolished protein function
confers new or enhanced activity on a protein, s
point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
which results in a premature stop codon.
The first and second bases in a codon usually determine the _____________of the translated amino acid, meaning the third base can vary and still encode the same amino acid.
A metal coating would absorb or reflect charged particles in a transmission microscope,___________ the resolution of the apparatus.
hormone released by the adrenal glands. Physiologically normal kidneys respond to aldosterone by increasing the reabsorption of both sodium and water. This leads to an increase in blood volume and blood pressure
Glomerular filtration rate is proportional to the glomerular capillary blood pressure mins
the sum of plasma osmotic pressure and the bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure
An increase in systemic blood pressure would _____ the glomerular capillary blood pressure which would increase the glomerular filtration rate
divergence of one species into multiple species over time which can occur when subgroups of the original species are separated or isolated in different environments so that these subgroups evolve independently of one another
During the risin gportion of the action potential, sodium ions are moving _____ the neuron, causing the membrane potential to become more ___-
Final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is
The fibers that attach to the chromosomes in mitosis and form the mitotic spind are
Disruption of the mitotic spindle by drugs prevents the proper _______ segregation of chromosomes into the daughter cells and usually results in ____ numbers being distributed to the two daughter cells
When the plasma membrane is at it resting potential, the voltage gated K channels and Na Channels are
As triggering events bring the membrane up to its threshold potential
the voltage gated Na channels and open and cause further depolarizaiton of the membrane by allowing Na+ to flow into the cell.
amount of air that moves into the lungs during inspiration
Volume of such gas in the air passageways (trachea,bronchi and bronchioles) is called
respiratory dead space
Subtracting the dead space from the tidal volume
quantity of air that enters the alveoli on each inspiration
Primary process that takes place in the colon is
absorption of water
Calcitonin puts calcium in the bone, parathroid hormone gets rid of calcium
Hardy Weinberg Equation
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Hardy Weinberg equation 2
How many molecules of acetyl CoA, an acetyl group attached to 'coenzyme A', are produced from a single molecule of glucose for participation in the Krebs cycle?
Choose 1 answer:
How are electrons extracted from the citric acid cycle for use in the electron transport chain?
Choose 1 answer:
Reduction of NAD^+
High cellular concentrations of _______ would inhibit the entry of pyruvate into the Krebs cycle.
ATP, NADH, and acetyl CoA
NADH enters the electron transport chain at a_________energy state than FADH_2
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
The cell type in the male reproductive system that is most analogous to the female ovum is
THe mature ovum is the female gamete that has completed meiosis and contains the ___ number of maternally derived chromosomes
________ the mature male gametes that contain
haploid number of paternal y derived chromosomes
Which hormones are directly required for spermatogenesis
FSH and Testosterone
Two hormones that directly stimulate Sertoli cells are
FSH and testosterone
Exocrine glands secrete their products
Endocrine glands release
their products in bloodstream
Filtrate is formed as fluid passes from the glomerular capillaries through the glomerular membrane into the Bowmans capsul. This region of the nephron is known as
Phagocytosis requires that the cell change
shape dramatically as it surrounds and engulfs large extracellular particles
________ are one of the cytoskeletal elements that determine shape
Adenine and Guanine
Thymine and Cytosine, uracil
The fact that the enzyme binds the substrate and converts it to product at normal levels in vitro suggests that that
the active site of the enzyme has not been alterted, but rather than an allosteric site on the enzyme has been affected
Disruption of the mitotic spindle by drugs prevents
the proper segregation of chromosomes into the daughter cells and usually results in unequal number s being distributed to the two daughter cells
Bacteria vs Virus
Bacteria do not require host tissue to reproduce, wheares viruses do
Prokaryotic cells do not contain
nuclei, membrane-bound organelles in which nuclear genes are transcribed in eukaryotic cells
Transcription occurs in the _______ of bacterial cells
occurs in the cytoplasm
Breakdown of glucose proceeds first by ______, then by oxidation in the _______
Glycolysis occurs in the
CAC occurs in the
matrix of the mitochondria
Capsomers are recognized by WBC and therefore determine the virus
the viral genome replicates without destroying the host cell
virus that destroys the host cell immediately (does not lie dormant)
infectious protein particles that do not have a genome
stem cell differentiates into two daughter cells (the original stem cell ceases to exist), and a nearby stem cell undergoes mitosis to create two stem cells: there is a net gain of two daughter cells, while the number of stem cells remains constant
stem cell differentiates into one daughter cell while also continuing to exist. There is a net gain of one daughter cell, while the number of stem cells remains constant.
obligate asymmetric replication,
Degradation of the ___________ plays a key role in apoptosis
cell signalling that occurs when secreted cytokines from a cell interact with receptors on the secreting cell
to the number of mitotic replications a cell can undergo before it enters a senescent state (before it stops undergoing mitosis altogether).
In Prophase I, the cell has undergone DNA replication but has yet to divide leaving it with how many chromosomes and chromatids?
46 chromatids and 92 chromatids
While oogenesis is halted at prophase I until females reach sexual maturity, ________ is a continuous process in males
Cytoplasmic division is ______ in oogenesis
Oogenesis produces one large _____ and __ polar bodies
oocyte and 2 polar bodies
4 sperm ells with equal cytoplasmic volumes
chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
In order to allow for proper metaphase alignment and chromosomal division,
the nuclear envelope dissolves in prometaphase
____ help organize the mitotic spindle and are found in centrosomes which are organelles
Only eukaryotes have __________organelles, so only eukaryotes can have membrane associated structures such as centrioles
protein structure around a chromosome's centromere
Centromere are found on
__________ are found toward the poles of cells during cell division
_____ are microtubules sent out by the centrioles to bind kinetochores
__________________ help pull chromatids apart
In what cell cycle phase can cells be karyotyped
DNA replication occurs during the____ phase of the cell cycle.
Blood in the pulmonary artery, unlike blood in other arteries, is essentially the same as
It has passed through the tissues of the body where it has given up oxygen and taken on CO2. It has been pumped through the right side of the heart from the veins and headed for the lung where it will become oxygenated and will dispose of its CO2 load.
Pulmonary artery blood
Venous blood is lower in pH than arterial blood due primarily to the _______ it carries
The diaphragm is a muscular partition between the abdominal and thoracic cavities. It is dome-shaped at rest _________toward the lungs and heart. It flattens when it contracts during inspiration.
When the diaphragm contracts the volume of the thoracic cavity_____
During diaphragm contraction, there is a _____ in pressure in the pleural cavity between the thoracic wall and lung. Fresh air flows in to equalize the pressure inflating the lung
The right ventricle pumps blood through the _______
The left ventricle pumps blood through the ___________
entire rest of the blood
The difference in the size of the lung compared to the rest of the body suggests that the left ventricle develops____ more pressure and has thicker wall than the right
The organs through which the ___ ventricle pumps blood are farther away from the heart than the lungs and resistance in a tube is inversely proportional to the length of the tube
The left ventricle has a ____ wall and greater pressure
If the blood flow to an alveolus were blocked there would be no flow or hemoglobic-rich blood cells to take O2 and no influx of _____ from that blood. As a result the air in the alveolus would become more like that of the atmosphere. It would acquire a higher P02 and a lower CO2
In humans, cholesterol is precursor to testosterone. Cholesterol and testosterone are only two of several _______ based natural molecules
The exchange of nutrients with the surrounding tissues occurs only in the
Only certain types of _____ dilate or constrict to regulate blood flow
One characteristic common to arteries, veins and capillaries is the
presence of a layer of endothelial cells. All three types of vessels possess an inner layer of endothelial cells
The pancreas produces which of the following substances for the digestive system?
Proteolytic enzymes which are released into the small intestine where they are converted to their active forms of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase.
Primary function of myelin sheath
Enable nerve impulses to travel more quickly by jumping from node to node rather than traveling continuously along the entire length of the neuron.
MERRF results from a mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that impairs protein synthesis, oxygen consumption, and energy production. When an affected male and a normal female reproduce, which of the following best predicts the expected phenotypic ratios of the offspring?
None of the offspring will be affected. all of the offspring will receive functioning mtDNA from the mother, none of the offspring will inherit mutated genes causing MERRF.
What will get squeezed and made into lymph from the capillary? RBC, small protein, large protein or water?
Small protein, water
Proteins transcription principlly occurs in the ER. The proteins are then transported tot he Golgi apparatus for post-translational modification, processing and packaging for proper localization. Retrograde transport would reverse the motion and returns he proteins to he ER
Why cant you use an antibody produced by mice in humans?
The human immune system will recognize the mouse antibody as a foreign substance and generate an immune response towards it. The immune response will generate antibodies against the mouse antibody, limiting its usefulness as a treatment
The cutting of introns and the splicing associated with the expression occurs during which following steps int he protein-synthesis process
DNA—>mRNA. The removal of introns and splicing of the remaining pieces is a step in the production of mature mRNA from the transcript produced from DNA. This requisition requires you to recall that splicing and intron removal occur during the processing of mRNA after transcription
Cytochrome C is a _____ electron carrier
Primers for PCR must have
A high GC content and have G or C base pairs at the 5' or 3' ends
In which phase of meiosis does nondisjunction occur?
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase 1 of meiosis or the failure of sister chromosomes to separate during anaphase II of meiosis
Transport affinity for a given substrate is a
Property of the amino acid transport protein itself and Kt will not not change. Kt is not dependent on the concentration of amino acid transport protein
Substrate concentration at which reaction rate is one half the maximal transport capacity
Colony growth and addition of a polysaccharide
A lag in colony growth represents the period in which the expression of the enzymes is occuring
_____ are the first vessel type downstream of venules
Visual pigments absorbs light, so if there are fewer pigments, fewer-___of the weakly perceived color will be sent to the brain
Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase would slow down he production of carbonic acid from water and CO. This would allow build up of ____ in the tissues b/c the normal method of carbon dioxide removal is inhibited
Systemic veins carry ____ carbon dioxide levels
System arteries carry ___ carbon dioxide levels
If part a polypeptide chain is subject to hydroIytic cleaveage, this reaction is most likely catalyzed by a ______
Changing a surface-exposed ______residue for a more hydrophilic residue eliminates the entropic penalty associated with ordered water molecules around hydrophobic gorups
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