National APES Questions
Terms in this set (33)
Day 1: What are 4 major layers of the Earth and the predominant elements in each layer?
Crust, Mantle, Core, Inner Core
Day 1: What are the two types of tectonic plates? What are they made of?
Oceanic (basalt) and Continental (granite)
What are the three types of plate boundaries? Can you provide an example of each location?
Convergent (Any subduction zone), Divergent (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, African Rift Valley), Transform (Southern California)
What are the major horizons of soil? What is found in each?
OA (nutrients), B (accumulated metals, Fe, Al) , CR (bedrock)
How do clay, silt, and sand impact soil characteristics?
Clay holds water, sand allows for quick percolation, silt is ideal for farming
What are the three types of rock? Which is most common on the surface of the earth?
Igneous, metamorphic, Sedimentary (common on surface)
What are the two major types of weathering? Where on the planet do they occur?
-Physical and Chemical weathering
-Physical occurs commonly outside of the tropics
-Chemical within the tropics
What are the major gases of the atmosphere?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (93%), CO2 (.04%)
What are the layers of the atmosphere from the surface up to space?
Tropo, Strato, Meso, Thermo, Iso, Exo
What are the three atmospheric convection cells?
Hadley, Ferrel, Polar
The bulk of planet's freshwater is found where?
What is an aquifer?
An underground layer of porous rock between impermeable rock filled with water
What are 4 major properties of water?
Cohesion, Adhesion, Capillarity, Universal Solvent, High Specific heat, Density, Polarity
What are the types of symbiotic relationships, and how is each species impacted?
Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, ammensalism
What is a keystone species?
A species which serves to keep all other populations in balance in an ecosystem
What percentage of energy is transferred between trophic levels?
What trophic level is the largest?
What is the primary energy source for terrestrial ecosystems?
Which of the biogeochemical cycles does not utilize the atmosphere?
How is atmospheric nitrogen converted to a usable form for plants?
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Water leaving organisms, like plants through their stoma is called?
How do an r-strategist and k-strategist differ? Example of each?
R= rapid reproduction (rabbits, mice) k=slow population growth (Humans, elephants)
What is a carrying capacity?
the maximum population size based on ecosystem limits
What is the major difference between primary and secondary succession?
the presence of soil indicates secondary succession
The world population graph is a ________ curve.
J curve or exponential growth
What are the four phases of the demographic transition and details of each?
Preindustrial, transitional, industrial, post industrial
How do you calculate population doubling time?
rule of 70
What is GMO? Cisgenic and transgenic?
-Genetically modified organism
-Cisgenic- organism with genes from same species
-Transgenic- organism with genes from different species
Monoculture plantations having low genetic diversity are vulnerable to..?
What is integrated pest management?
Altering agriculture to avoid greatest detriment from insects
What are the major types of forestry?
Clear cutting, Selective cutting, plantation forests
What is fracking?
using water and solvents under pressure to break shale underground and release natural gas
What is acid mine drainage?
acidic after exiting from a subsurface mien, very detrimental to aquatic ecosystems