Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (80)
- involves the collection of data to establish the relationship between and among variables using statistical analysis.
- aims to establish or validate relationships and to develop generalizations from the relationships. It is generally more objective as data collected undergo statistical analysis.
- is usually aimed at studying a phenomenon in its natural setting
- uses questionnaires ad interviews to gather data about a group of people
- looks into the degree of association between variables It considers the extent to which differences between variables are related to the differences in another variable or variables.
- is one where a group one where a group of respondents are randomly selected to undergo a particular researcher-impose treatment to determine the effect of such treatment.
Historical Quantitative res.
- makes use of historical data to predict the behaviour of a variable
- looks into the cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
- data is obtained through oral exchange of questions and answers by the researcher and the respondents.
- data is provided by the respondents in a set of questions provided by the researcher.
- data is previously gathered and stored may be availed by the researcher.
- data is acquired on an actual situation and recorded through the direct observation by the researcher.
- data is gathered by the researcher through experimentation process.
- is usually resorted to if the study needs large sample size, or a cross-sectional analysis is needed.
- is a body of information or observations that is provided to a researcher. It is a response or reaction given to a particular situation.
- it is not meaningful unless it is analyzed. Produces information when processed.
- serves as a basis for decision making.
- are first-hand information gathered by the person who needs them.
- are taken from observations of others or responses to queries in researches done earlier.
- is one where specific values are assigned to a particular group. It is the lowest level of data measurement.
- the numbers obtained provide the rank or order of the values
- a scale where intervals are consistent but it does not have a true zero point
- is similar to the interval scale, except for the presence of an absolute zero point which means absence of whatever is being measured. It expresses values in terms of multiples or fractional parts.
type of data
The ____ needed is dependent on the objective of the study.
- is the totality of individuals or objects that are the focus of the study.
- population used by the researcher in generalizing the conclusion of the study
- lists all individuals or objects included in the target population.
- is a subset of the population chosen to participate in a study. It serves as a basis for drawing conclusions about the target population.
- those that are chosen as subjects of the study.
- is the number of elements in the sample set. It considers precision of the result in using the sample instead of the population.
confidence level, margin of error
- In determining sample size, the ___ and ___ have to be considered.
- is the level of precision that the true value of the parameter of the population is included in the sample. Usually presented in percent.
Margin of error
- provides a range where the results from the samples taken are likely to represent the true value of the parameter of the population. It is the maximum difference that can be expected between the parameters of the true populations.
is inversely proportional to the margin of error.
- is determined by dividing the number of usable responses by the total number of questionnaires fielded.
- is the systematic recording of information of each member of the population. More reliable and less prone to error. Used if the population of the study is heterogeneous.
- is the process of selecting samples from a target population.
- is the method of drawing samples where every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected. Requires presence of a complete list of members
Non probability sampling
- does not ensure that every member of the target population is given an equal chance of being selected. It is less precise
- there is no particular order used in the actual selection of samples. Each member of the target population has an equal chance of being included
- is an improvement of the random sampling process where a pre-selection system is in the place to complement the randomness of the selection process
- is computed by dividing the population size by the desired sample size, and is used to determine the kth element to be taken from the population.
- the target population is first divided into strata according to certain predefined characteristics.
- used when the population is dispersed over a wide geographic region, and it is costly to gather a complete list of the members of the population.
- when there is sampling bias or samples taken are not representative of the target population. Normally, this problem may be corrected by increasing the sample size.
Non sampling error
- usually caused by problems in data collection or processing. Occurs when:
the response rate is low, there is an error in the instrument used in data collection, there are mistakes in encoding
Non sampling error occurs when:
- may be used to gather data of the study.
- may be used both in qualitative and quantitative researches.
- contains a set of questions that the interviewer will ask the interviewees, according to the order that they appear in the schedule. As well as answer options which the interviewer reads to the interviewees.
Open ended questions
- are used when there are many possible responses to a particular problem. It is easy to construct but difficult to tabulate and analyze.
Close ended questions
- have limited response which are predetermined.
- require respondents to answer two-point questions such as 'yes' or 'no'
Multiple choice questions
- require respondents to choose one among the different choices enumerated.
Rank order questions
- require respondents to indicate their order of preference from a list of options
- requires the respondents to rate their agreement or disagreement with a particular statement. Ex. Likert scale, 5-point scale
Semantic differential scale
- requires respondents to check their responses between two extreme values at the opposite ends of the scale.
- is a uni-polar scale numbered from -n to +n without a neutral or zero point. Usually presented vertically with the adjective in the middle, and respondents are required to choose one. It is used when the researcher finds it difficult to find bi-polar adjectives.
Constant sum questions
- require respondents to enter numeric data expressing the importance by the respondent to said option. Data collected are ratio data.
- is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
Table of specification
- where specific behaviours are listed and opposite the behaviour, the importance of that particular behaviour to the study. Serves as guide on the completeness of the questionnaire relative to the listed behaviour. \
- when an instrument adequately contains the characteristics being measured.
- if an instrument is useful in predicting a person's behaviour in a specified situation.
- if a questionnaire used to measure are directly observable or measurable.
- measures the degree of consistency with which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
- is the extent to which a questionnaire administered the same group of people on two different occasions yield the same result. (Two test should be administered at least 2 weeks apart)
Equivalent forms reliability
- is the extent to which two different questionnaires administered to the same group of people yield similar results.
Internal consistency reliability
- is the extent to which all items within a questionnaire yield similar results.
Pearson product-moment relation coefficient
- used to determine the reliability coefficient using test-retest and equivalent forms.
- formula used to measure the internal consistency reliability of a questionnaire
- is a process of collecting information regarding the variables that the researcher sought to examine, and to answer the objectives of the researcher.
Organization of data
- refers to the process of classifying data collected for ease of presentation
- involves listing the important characteristics with emphasis on significant figures and important features of a data set
- is a summary of data into columns and rows
Two column frequency table
- simplest table where the first column indicates the variables or groupings and the second column, the frequencies
Bar charts, histograms
____ and ____ use bars and figures for comparison of data.
- shows the historical performance or trend of the data set, whether positive trend, negative trend, fluctuating, or no trend
- shows the share of a variable from the entire sample or the percentage share of variable out of the entire pie
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Sociology - Lesson 3 and 4
Stats chap one
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
P6 (Prelims tao)