Home
Browse
Create
Search
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $2.99/month
Res.Semis.G12
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Terms in this set (80)
Quantitative Res.
- involves the collection of data to establish the relationship between and among variables using statistical analysis.
Quantitative Res.
- aims to establish or validate relationships and to develop generalizations from the relationships. It is generally more objective as data collected undergo statistical analysis.
Qualitative Res.
- is usually aimed at studying a phenomenon in its natural setting
Descriptive Res.
- uses questionnaires ad interviews to gather data about a group of people
Correlational Res.
- looks into the degree of association between variables It considers the extent to which differences between variables are related to the differences in another variable or variables.
Experimental Res.
- is one where a group one where a group of respondents are randomly selected to undergo a particular researcher-impose treatment to determine the effect of such treatment.
Historical Quantitative res.
- makes use of historical data to predict the behaviour of a variable
Causal Research
- looks into the cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
Interview method
- data is obtained through oral exchange of questions and answers by the researcher and the respondents.
Questionnaire m.
- data is provided by the respondents in a set of questions provided by the researcher.
Document meth.
- data is previously gathered and stored may be availed by the researcher.
Observation meth.
- data is acquired on an actual situation and recorded through the direct observation by the researcher.
Experiment meth.
- data is gathered by the researcher through experimentation process.
Questionnaire
- is usually resorted to if the study needs large sample size, or a cross-sectional analysis is needed.
...
...
Data
- is a body of information or observations that is provided to a researcher. It is a response or reaction given to a particular situation.
Data
- it is not meaningful unless it is analyzed. Produces information when processed.
Information
- serves as a basis for decision making.
Primary data
- are first-hand information gathered by the person who needs them.
Secondary data
- are taken from observations of others or responses to queries in researches done earlier.
...
...
Nominal
- is one where specific values are assigned to a particular group. It is the lowest level of data measurement.
Ordinal
- the numbers obtained provide the rank or order of the values
Interval
- a scale where intervals are consistent but it does not have a true zero point
Ratio
- is similar to the interval scale, except for the presence of an absolute zero point which means absence of whatever is being measured. It expresses values in terms of multiples or fractional parts.
type of data
The ____ needed is dependent on the objective of the study.
Population
- is the totality of individuals or objects that are the focus of the study.
Target Population
- population used by the researcher in generalizing the conclusion of the study
Sampling frame
- lists all individuals or objects included in the target population.
Sample
- is a subset of the population chosen to participate in a study. It serves as a basis for drawing conclusions about the target population.
Respondents
- those that are chosen as subjects of the study.
Sample size
- is the number of elements in the sample set. It considers precision of the result in using the sample instead of the population.
confidence level, margin of error
- In determining sample size, the ___ and ___ have to be considered.
Confidence Level
- is the level of precision that the true value of the parameter of the population is included in the sample. Usually presented in percent.
Margin of error
- provides a range where the results from the samples taken are likely to represent the true value of the parameter of the population. It is the maximum difference that can be expected between the parameters of the true populations.
Confidence Level
is inversely proportional to the margin of error.
Response rate
- is determined by dividing the number of usable responses by the total number of questionnaires fielded.
Census
- is the systematic recording of information of each member of the population. More reliable and less prone to error. Used if the population of the study is heterogeneous.
Sampling technique
- is the process of selecting samples from a target population.
Probability sampling
- is the method of drawing samples where every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected. Requires presence of a complete list of members
Non probability sampling
- does not ensure that every member of the target population is given an equal chance of being selected. It is less precise
Random Sampling
- there is no particular order used in the actual selection of samples. Each member of the target population has an equal chance of being included
Systematic Samp.
- is an improvement of the random sampling process where a pre-selection system is in the place to complement the randomness of the selection process
K value
- is computed by dividing the population size by the desired sample size, and is used to determine the kth element to be taken from the population.
Stratified Samp.
- the target population is first divided into strata according to certain predefined characteristics.
Cluster samp.
- used when the population is dispersed over a wide geographic region, and it is costly to gather a complete list of the members of the population.
Sampling error
- when there is sampling bias or samples taken are not representative of the target population. Normally, this problem may be corrected by increasing the sample size.
Non sampling error
- usually caused by problems in data collection or processing. Occurs when:
the response rate is low, there is an error in the instrument used in data collection, there are mistakes in encoding
Non sampling error occurs when:
Research instrument
- may be used to gather data of the study.
Interview
- may be used both in qualitative and quantitative researches.
Interview schedule
- contains a set of questions that the interviewer will ask the interviewees, according to the order that they appear in the schedule. As well as answer options which the interviewer reads to the interviewees.
Open ended questions
- are used when there are many possible responses to a particular problem. It is easy to construct but difficult to tabulate and analyze.
Close ended questions
- have limited response which are predetermined.
Dichotomous questions
- require respondents to answer two-point questions such as 'yes' or 'no'
Multiple choice questions
- require respondents to choose one among the different choices enumerated.
Rank order questions
- require respondents to indicate their order of preference from a list of options
Rating scale
- requires the respondents to rate their agreement or disagreement with a particular statement. Ex. Likert scale, 5-point scale
Semantic differential scale
- requires respondents to check their responses between two extreme values at the opposite ends of the scale.
Staple scale
- is a uni-polar scale numbered from -n to +n without a neutral or zero point. Usually presented vertically with the adjective in the middle, and respondents are required to choose one. It is used when the researcher finds it difficult to find bi-polar adjectives.
Constant sum questions
- require respondents to enter numeric data expressing the importance by the respondent to said option. Data collected are ratio data.
Validity
- is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
Table of specification
- where specific behaviours are listed and opposite the behaviour, the importance of that particular behaviour to the study. Serves as guide on the completeness of the questionnaire relative to the listed behaviour. \
Content validity
- when an instrument adequately contains the characteristics being measured.
Criterion validity
- if an instrument is useful in predicting a person's behaviour in a specified situation.
Construct validity
- if a questionnaire used to measure are directly observable or measurable.
Reliability
- measures the degree of consistency with which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
Test-retest reliability
- is the extent to which a questionnaire administered the same group of people on two different occasions yield the same result. (Two test should be administered at least 2 weeks apart)
Equivalent forms reliability
- is the extent to which two different questionnaires administered to the same group of people yield similar results.
Internal consistency reliability
- is the extent to which all items within a questionnaire yield similar results.
Pearson product-moment relation coefficient
- used to determine the reliability coefficient using test-retest and equivalent forms.
Cronbach alpha
- formula used to measure the internal consistency reliability of a questionnaire
Data gathering
- is a process of collecting information regarding the variables that the researcher sought to examine, and to answer the objectives of the researcher.
Organization of data
- refers to the process of classifying data collected for ease of presentation
Data presentation
- involves listing the important characteristics with emphasis on significant figures and important features of a data set
Table
- is a summary of data into columns and rows
Two column frequency table
- simplest table where the first column indicates the variables or groupings and the second column, the frequencies
Bar charts, histograms
____ and ____ use bars and figures for comparison of data.
Line graph
- shows the historical performance or trend of the data set, whether positive trend, negative trend, fluctuating, or no trend
Pie chart
- shows the share of a variable from the entire sample or the percentage share of variable out of the entire pie
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Entrep.Semis.G12
96 terms
Researcher-MIDTERMS
111 terms
ENTREP-MIDTERMS
75 terms
Bio
70 terms
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Sociology - Lesson 3 and 4
33 terms
Statistics
40 terms
Statistics Midterm
56 terms
Stats chap one
53 terms
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ChemSemis
73 terms
CONTEMP-MIDTERMS
291 terms
Entrep (Prelims)
188 terms
P6 (Prelims tao)
11 terms