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Terms in this set (50)
Albany Plan of Union
plan suggested by Parliament & endorsed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada & land east of the Mississippi to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Proclamation Line of 1763
Stated that no colonists could settle in lands to the west of the Appalachian mountains because British gov't wanted to avoid conflict w/ native Americans-- made the colonists very upset
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when the chief was killed.
writs of assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. These warrants could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. They were protested by the colonies.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the PA Appalachians that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in NC.
1764 British act forbidding the American colonies to issue paper money as legal tender; act was repealed in 1773 by the British as an effort to ease tensions between themselves and the colonies.
(1764) British deeply in debt partly due to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. Impacted mostly New England.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies organized to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaint to the king and Parliament. Serves as evidence of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the Stamp Act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on lead, glass, paint and tea
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the frontier parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.
1772, a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. A British customs schooner that had been engaged in anti-smuggling operations ran aground in shallow water and a group of American colonists attacked, boarded, looted, and torched the ship. The British wanted the men tried in England rather than the colonies which alarmed the colonists
Committees of Correspondence
Organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, this was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Daughters of Liberty
urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods in order to avoid purchasing them from England
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
1. Port Act closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for. 2. MA Gov't Act reduced the power of the MA legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor. 3. Allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies. 4. expanded the Quartering Act to enable British troops to be quartered in private homes--applied to all colonies.
First Continental Congress
convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. Delegates endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
1744, law passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, Expanded the borders of Canada, took land away from the colonies and gave it to Quebec.
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. It was the political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Rebellion of farmers in western Massachusetts (1786-1787) protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
The Great Compromise
created two houses in Congress; one based on population (Virginia Plan) and the other gave equal representation (new Jersey Plan) to each state.
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House and for taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
The government could tax imports, but not exports.
Congress could not ban the importation of slaves for 20 years
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Federalist Paper #10
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
this party rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave the central gov't too much political, economic, and military control. They advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that amendments would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny.
Political practices that are followed, but are not part of the actual Constitution. Examples include political parties, judicial review, and the Presidential Cabinet.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Hamilton's financial plan
1. Pay off national debt by assuming state debt 2. Collect Revenue by imposing tariffs 3. Create a national bank and currency
Citizen Genet Affair
The efforts of the French ambassador to the US to stir up military support for France and the French Revolution among Americans, leading to long-term anti-French sentiment
1794, farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax; US army puts down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory. Issue of impressment was not resolved, angering many Americans.
Recognized southern border of US on the 31st parallel , US gains right of deposit on Mississippi at New Orleans; Positive result of Jay's Treaty.
Washington's farewell address
Published in the papers, he said why he wasn't running again; advised Americans to beware of political parties since they will take down the government; warned against entangling alliances with foreign powers
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. Adams: "Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute."
Alien & Sedition Acts
Laws passed by Congress in 1798 that enabled the Federalist government to imprison or deport immigrants & to prosecute critics of the government.
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. They argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution.
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