The Consolidation of Territory
The land had been farmed out in Feudalism down the chain of command to nobles. But as the king started to extend his grasp he began to build a direct control over more land. This made connections stronger between different regions in the nation.
Growth of Royal Bureaucracy
The king began building up bureaucrats with direct loyalty to him and payed them on a state salary. The led to the creation of Provincial Administration, The Royal Council (a cabinet of advisors for the king), and the position of the Favorite (one member of the royal council who the king heavily depended upon)
Extending Royal Justice into the Provinces
King built a more elaborate court system to extend his power in the nation because he could not hear all court cases. Supreme courts were instituted by the king (Parliament in France and Circuit Courts in England) so that appointed judges could hear cases for him and make rulings on his behalf
Subordination of the Church
Popes used to have power over kings but they lost this after the Protestant Reformation. In Protestant nations the king became the head of the church. In Catholic lands, kings gained power through concordants which helped establish peace between church and state but also gave the king more power over the church.
Establishment of Permanent Armies
In order for the king to enforce his increased power and taxes he needed a large standing army. The sizes of armies grew dramatically, in some cases the became as large as 100,000-200,000. While the grew in size they also grew in discipline as more training was involved as well as more distinguishing uniforms.
Drawing in the Nobility
The state needed nobles for jobs as well as their power and experience. To attract the nobles the state invested a lot of money into the attractions and entertainment in the courts and cities and the king also gave monetary gifts and salaries. This kept the nobles happy and rewarded them for their time at court. The king was also prepared to fight back against rebellious nobles and put them down.
Managing a Royal Court
The Royal court was a stage for the king to display his power in front of powerful nobles. This was done through Rituals of Power through extravagant clothing or odd favors. The King also had to orchestrate the Rules of Status as one's place at court was very important and the closer to the king the more power one had. And finally the king had to Manage Conflicts among the nobles in order to stop fighting and keep them coming back to court
Extending Royal Revenues
The king's growing power required lots of money. The king had to be creative to bring in more revenue including from the Royal Domain (only income during Dark Ages from land), Indirect taxes (tariffs, sales tax, luxury taxes and stamp taxes), Borrowing from nobles and urban elite, Sale of Government Offices and in some cases Direct Taxes
Weakness of Monarchy - there were not many taxes, did not have a standing army and relied on nobility, had to get rights from parliament, and the idea of english exceptionalism
Charles I - had a personal awkwardness to himself, depended on single court faction (his best friend), did not explain himself just relied on majesty of monarchy
Religious Conflict - the Laudian high church reform was dissatisfied by reformation. Rejected predestination, reform of ritual, the problem was they sounded like catholics. English Puritans were persecuted by king
Conflicts with parliament - Charles I did not agree with parliament and sent them home 3 different occasions, forced loans and arbitrary arrests
Period of Personal Rule - New sources of revenue, tariffs, monopolies, and ship money (fee collected to patrol seas of pirates)