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APES Chapter 19 Test Review Global Change
Terms in this set (52)
What are the likely outcomes if ice caps continue to shrink?
The volume of oceans will increase, polar bears will go extinct, seal populations will rise, then sink as food will become scarce due to greater competition, and climate around the world will increase.
How are weather and climate different?
Weather is over a short period of time, climate is over an elongated period of time
What does global warming mean and what does it include?
Global warming is the warming of oceans, land masses and atmosphere of Earth. It includes almost everything on Earth.
Describe how the Greenhouse effect works.
When the solar radiation strikes the atmosphere, some of it is absorbed by the ozone layer, but the rest of it is reflected. However, some of the reflected radiation does not leave earth and is then trapped by greenhouse gases, that then collectively warm the Earth.
What are the main greenhouse gases?
Water vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and Chlorofluorocarbons
How do greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, help contribute to the greenhouse effect?
They help trap solar radiation
How does the global warming potential work in light of the amount of a greenhouse gas?
It is an estimate of how much a molecule of any compound can contribute to global warming over a 100 year period relative to a molecule of carbon dioxide
How are decomposition and global warming linked?
When organisms decompose, they release CO2 into the atmosphere and CO2 helps trap the solar radiation that leads to global warming
How can deforestation be a source of greenhouse gases?
The trees take out the CO2 in the atmosphere when alive, but when they are cut down, they release the CO2 back into the atmosphere. Thus, leading to excessive amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Which greenhouse gases are associated with
a. burning fossil fuels
C- Methane and CO2
D- Nitrous Oxide
Why do scientists think that the level of greenhouse gases is increasing?
They have measured the level of greenhouse gases over time through ice cores and soil samples and the results show that the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has never been this high before
As greenhouse gases increase, what gets reduced?
The amount of polar ice
What is natural source of short-term climate change?
The respiration of the forests and the photosynthesis of oceanic organisms
Which greenhouse gas is least affected by human activities?
How is methane created by man and his activities?
Methane can be created from anaerobic decomposition in landfills
Which greenhouse gas is not a naturally occuring substance?
Which greenhouse gas traps the most IR radiation?
What else are CFCs linked to besides climate change?
A hole in the ozone layer
Which greenhouse gas has the greatest warming potential?
Which greenhouse gas is the greatest contributor to climate change?
Which greenhouse gas is associated with saturated soil?
What is associated with global dimming?
Why does the Keeling curve have seasonal variations?
In spring and summer photosynthesis increases, therefore leading to more extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere, but in fall and winter, plants die and decompose, so CO2 is emitted back into the atmosphere
What nation is found in the top 5 in both production and per capita generation of carbon dioxide?
The United States
What nation is in the top 5 in total carbon production but their per capita production is much less?
What nations produce the most carbon dioxide?
The developed nations(MDCs)
How do scientists used long buried ocean sediments to determine past climates?
The composition of sediments give scientists an idea of he past's climate
What does the presence of heavy oxygen in an ice core mean?
It means that that ice was formed in a warmer period of time
Today's temperatures are the highest in the past _____ years?
What correlations have been discovered between carbon dioxide levels and temperatures?
The higher the amount of carbon dioxide, the higher the temperature
Why do scientists think the recent warming of the Earth is because of greenhouse gases and not solar radiation?
If increased levels of solar radiation were the cause of global warming, period of elevated solar radiation would be associated with higher temperatures more commonly when the Sun is shining more
Why is the ocean not a good sink to absorb excess atmospheric CO2?
The CO2 could dissolve and bond with water molecules, creating carbonic acid (H2CO3), which leads to ocean acidification
What do climate models predict in terms as far as warmer temperatures and precipitation?
The temperatures and precipitation will increase, but no one knows when it comes to where.
What are some positive feedback loops that exist with regards to increased global temperatures?
Increased activity in soils, the destruction of permafrost, deforestation.
What are some negative feedback loops that are associated with increased global temperatures?
Stimulation of plant growth, ocean acidification
Which fossil fuel produces the most CO2 when compared to the amount of energy produced?
What United Nations organization monitors the global impact of climate change?
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
During the past 100 years, which part of the Earth had a decrease in temperatures?
Certain parts of Antarctica and Greenland
How do scientists study historical temperatures?
Through the use of ice cores and cores of oceanic sediments
Which greenhouse gas is associated with melting permafrost?
How can freshwater supplies be affected by the increase in melting permafrost?
Overlying lakes become smaller as the lake water drains deeper in the ground
What is the most serious problem associated with the rise in sea levels?
Destruction of coastal cities and saltwater intrusion
How are increased temperatures linked to the spread of tropical diseases?
As the temperature warms, the habitable range of the disease spreaders (mosquitos) increases, leaving more people vulnerable to the diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, etc.
How has global warming interfered with the lives/life cycles of living organisms?
Plants bloom earlier, insects arrive earlier. The ranges of many species have increased.
What event linked to global warming could shut down the global thermohaline current?
Melting of the polar ice cap and ice from Greenland could dilute the water enough to shut off circulation
If the thermohaline current shut down, what would happen to weather across various parts of the globe?
Temperatures would change intensely. Much of Europe would experience significantly colder temperatures
What is the name of the global collaboration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
The Kyoto Protocol
What is carbon sequestration?
An approach to stabilizing greenhouse gases by removing CO2 from the atmosphere
What is albedo and how is it affected by global warming?
Albedo is the amount of reflected light from Earth's surface. The albedo is decreasing on Earth due to the drastic increase in polar ice, therefore leading to global warming.
What insect is a natural source of methane?
How could climate change/global warming change life in the United States?
People inhabiting coastal regions would have to relocate. People would be more susceptible to disease. The time for healthy sun exposure would be reduced
What is the only nation that has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol?
The United States
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