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Ch.16 The brain and cranial nerves
Terms in this set (65)
Carry information to and from the brain. Myelinated.
Information being processed. Unmyelinated.
Functions of the brain
1. bring info into the brain (sensory)
2. transport info out of the brain (motor)
3.transport info among centers of the brain
4.sort in-coming and out-going info into the appropriate area or nerves
Myelinated; white matter
Small centers of brain functioning; processing non-myelinated, gray matter.
A fluid filled space.
Cushioning for the brain, circulation in the brain, blood brain barrier prevents movement of most molecules into CSF, and exchanges blood in choroid plexus.
Highly permeable cappillaries in the ventricles.
Blood brain barrier
Astrocytes wrap around capillaries and tightly control the environment of the neurons.
Protective coverings of the brain.
1. dura mater
2. arachnoid mater
3. pia mater
4. subdural space
5. subarachnoid space
Very tough connective tissue; dense irregular connective tissue. Bound to bones of the skull.
Wispy, spider-web like.
Membrane bound to surface of brain.
Small space containing serous fluid.
Blood vessels present, contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Contains nuclei for processing of basic information, cranial nerves (V, IX, X, XI, XII) In charge of essential things you don't think about, heart rate, swallowing, breathing, coughing, vomiting, and sneezing.
Descending nerve tracts for control of skeletal muscles
Forms an X in nerve tracts. Brain hemispheres control opposite side of the body.
Nuclei involved in balance, coordination, and sound from ear.
contains descending and ascending nerve tracts, nuclei relay information to cerebrum and cerebellum. Nuclei for cranial nerve (V, VI, VII, VIII, IX). Sleep and respiratory center.
Visual reflexes ( head turns toward light)
Auditory reflex ( head turns toward sound)
carries information from the spinal cord to brain.
Regulate and coordinate motor activities.
Descending tracts carrying motor information from the cerebrum to the spinal cord.
Several nuclei in the brain stem. Regulated cycles as the sleep cycle.
Stores motor memory. Nerve tracts connect to the brain stem superior, middle, and inferior peduncles.
Ridges in the cerebellar cortex.
White matter (nerve tracts).
Balance and eye movement.
Medial portion of the hemispheres
Posture, locomotion, and fine motor control.
Planning, practice and learning complex movement.
All sensory neurons (except olfaction) go through the thalamus, info gets sorted here and goes to the cerebrum.
Sensory relay station.
Contains nerve tracts (ascending and descending). Subthalamic nuclei: control motor functions.
Habenular nuclei: emotional response to odors. Pineal gland: onset of puberty, sleep cycle.
Autonomic; heart rate, urine release, digestive movement vessel diameter
Endocrine; central control for the endocrine system
Muscle control; swallowing and shivering
Body temperature; sweat, shivering, where aspirin reduces fever
Food and water intake; hunger and thirst centers
Sleep cycle; jet lag
Where we think, process sensory info, speech, language, emotion, etc. (brain folds)
Temporal, parietal, occipital lobe
Grey outer layer
White inner layer
Commissural fibers, connect right and left hemispheres.
Connect within a hemisphere.
Connections to spinal cord.
Control of motor function; movement
Emotion, memory, reproduction, and nutrition. Mostly part of the diencephalon and lower part of cerebrum.
I. Olfactory nerve
II. Optic nerve
III. Ocular motor
IV. Trochlear nerve
VI. Abducent nerve
VII. Facial nerve
VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve
X. Vagus nerve
XI. Accessory nerve
XII. Hypoglossal nerve
Olfactory nerve (I)
Sensory nerves associated with smell.
Optic nerve (II)
Sensory nerves associated with vision.
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Motor neurons to most of the muscles that move the eye.
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Motor neuron for the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
Divide into 3 major branches
1. Opthalmic branch: sensory from scalp and forehead.
2. Maxillary branch: sensory upper jaw, teeth, nasal cavity, upper lip.
3. Mandibular branch: Sensory from lower jaw, teeth, tongue, chin, temporal region. Motor to masseter, temporalis, digastric.
Abducent nerve (VI)
Motor neuron to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye ( abducts the eye)
Facial nerve (VII)
Sensory for taste, external ear, palate. Motor function for facial muscles, facial expression. Parasympathetic to submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, lacrimal gland, glands in nasla cavity.
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
Sensory for hearing and balance.
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Sensory for taste, pharynx, palatine tonsils, tongue, Middle ear. Motor for stylopharyngeus. Parasympathetic for parotid salivary glands, glands on tongue.
Vagus nerve (X)
Sensory from pharynx, larynx, abdominal organs, taste Motor function to soft palate, voice, tongue Parasympathetic to thoracic and abdominal organs.
Accessory nerve (XI)
Motor function for trapezius and sternocleidomastoid. Moves your head.
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Motor function for tongue and throat.
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