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Biology 1620 Exam 3
Terms in this set (139)
Which Eukaryotic supergroup includes the members of the plant kingdom?
Virdiplantae or Plantae (Embryophytes)
Sporic life cycle
Both haploid and diploid adults.
Gametic generation (N), Sporophyte (2N).
Form male gametophytes
Male (plant) gametangia are called:
Form female gametophytes
Female (plant) gametangia are called
Spores formed within structures are called:
Gametes are formed within:
Plants that form just one type of spore are described as being:
Plants that form both microspores and megaspores are described as being:
Plants grow from groups of cells that divide by mitosis for an extended period of time (often years or decades). These growing points are called:
Spores are waterproofed with what?
What are the three general tissue types that are formed by vascular plants?
Dermal, Vascular, and Ground tissues
Surround / protect the plant
Rapidly conduct fluid
Site of most metabolic activity and everything else
What are the two types of vascular tissues formed by vascular plants?
Primary and Secondary
Tissues that come from apical meristems.
Tissues that come from lateral meristems
Primary Dermal Tissue
Primary Vasuclar Tissue
Primary Ground Tissue
Secondary Dermal Tissue
Secondary Vascular Tissue
Rapidly conduct water
List two organ systems that are formed by plants:
Shoot system and Root system
Which plant organs make up the shoot system?
Stems, Leaves, and Reproductive systems
Waxy layer that waterproofs the plant body (keeps water in)
Trace molecule used to identify plant fossils
Structures that permit gases in/out of the plant.
Example of a plant that doesn't have a stomata and has a weak cuticle
Which type of meristem allows roots and stems to increase in diameter as they get older (due to the formation of wood and bark)?
Located at root ends and stem tip (primary). Grow up and down.
Evolution of Microphyll-type leaves
Evolved from enation that became vascularized
Evolution of Megaphyll-type leaves
Evolved from lateral branches that were overtopped, planated and webbed
Which three plant phyla have dominate gametophyte generations (with reduced sporophyte)
Liverwort, Moss, and Hornwort
Which two phyla contain free-sporing vascular plants?
Lycophyta (Lycopods) and Monilophyta (Moni Phyta)
Dominant gametophyte and reduced sporophyte
Non-vascular plant (Bryophyte)
Dominant sporophyte and reduced gametophyte
Vascular Plant (Tracheophytes)
What is a gymbosperm
Non-flowering seed plant, ovules (& seeds) are formed exposed on the surface of modified leaves or stems.
list the four phyla of "gymnosperms"
Pinophyta (Conifers), Cycadophyta (Cycads), Ginkgophyta (Ginkgoes), and Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)
What is the name of the phylum that includes the flowering plants?
Which group of non-vascular plants has a perennial thalloid gametophyte stage, and a sporophyte that grows from the gametophyte thallus by a basal meristem over a period of several years?
Which group of non-vascular plants forms a complex sporangium called a capsule?
Difference between a thalloid liverwort and a leafy liverwort?
Thalloid liverworts have a flat body with no leaves or stems. Leafy liverworts have leaves that are arranged in 2 or 3 rows.
Which group of non-vascular plants forms a sporophyte that is both short-lived and ephemeral (drying up and disintegrating shortly after release of spores)?
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts lack roots, but are attached to the substrate by strands of cells called
Among the non-vascular free-sporing plants, nutrients are transferred from the gametophyte to a portion of the sporophyte (embedded in gametophyte tissue) called the
A group fo free-sporing vascular plants from microphylls?
Which group of free-sporing vascular plants from megaphylls?
Monilophyta (Moni Phyta)
A leaf that bears sporangia is called a
Sometimes sporangia bearing leaves are grouped into terminal cones called
Location of sporangia in (most) members of the Monilophyta (Moni Phyta)
Underside of Sporophylls
Location of sporangia in members of the Lycophyta (Lycopods)
Upper surface of Sporophylls
In all seed plants the megasporangium is located within a structure (that forms the seed after fertilization) called the
In all seed plants, the male gametophytes are called
Parts of an Ovule
Integuments, Sporophyte (2N), Megagametophyle (N), Zygote (2N), Micropyle
Which gymnosperm group includes woody trees or shrubs with needle-like or scale-like leaves that bear microsporangiate and megasporangiate cones on the same individual (i.e. they are monoecious)?
Which plant Phylum contains just one extant species
What is the name of the only species within the Ginkgophyta (Ginkgoes) phylum
The ovules of Ginkgo are borne on structures called:
Name one genus from the phylum Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)
Which group of non-flowering seed plants consists of plants that are dioecious (i.e. with microsporangiate and megasporangiate cones on different individuals), have large palm-like leaves, and unbranched trunks
Having the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals.
Having both the male and female reproductive organs in the same individual; hermaphrodite.
Don't form a lot of wood with a high abundance of parenchyma
Four types of floral appendages that make up a flower
Sepal, Pedal, Stamen, and Pistil
Which portion of a flower forms pollen?
Which portion of a flower contains the ovules
What stage in a flowering plant life cycle is represented by a pollen grain?
In order for pollination to take place, pollen must land on a part of the pistil called the
Which portion of the flower forms seeds, following double fertilization
Which portion of the flower forms fruit, following double fertilization
Double fertilization of a flowering plant.
Sperm + Egg = Zygote (2N)
Sperm + 2 Polar Nuclei = Primary Endosperm Nucleus (3N)
Which eukaryotic clade includes fungi
A unicellular fungus
A multicellular fungus
The body of a multicellular fungus is composed of tubes of cytoplasm called
Hyphae form a cottony mass called
A mycelium that is not subdivided into cells is described as being
Most fungi have a zygotic life cycle, so the only diploid stage in the lie cycle is the
Sexual reproduction of Fungi
Asexual reproduction of Fungi
Types of asexual spores
Sporangiospores and Conidia
Formed within a sporangium
Formed at the tips of hyphae (Conidiophores)
Type of sexual spores
Formed by meiosis. Often formed in special structures called "fruiting bodies"
Fusion of the cytoplasm
Fusion of the nucleus
Fungi have cell walls formed from the structural carbohydrate
Fungus and unicellular algae
A fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship
Hyphae form a layer surrounding the root and penetrating the intercellular spaces between plant cells in the outer root (but do not penetrate the cell wall)
Hyphae penetrates cell wall and pushes in the plasma membrane of the root cell wall.
How does mycorrhizae benefit the plant
Gains more efficient H2O and mineral nutrient
How does mycorrhizae benefit the fungi
Gains fixed oxygen
Which fungal phylum consists of unicellular obligate parasite of animals that reproduce by forming spores
Rozella and Microsporidia are part of this Fungi clade
Specialized parasite of other fungi
Specialized parasites of animals
Which phylum includes the black bread molds
Black Bread Mold (Zygomycota)
Black bread molds are often anchored to their substrate by short extensions of the mycelium called
Which phylum includes aquatic fungi that form flagellated cells?
Soil fungi (mold) and obligate mutualists with vascular plants
Includes: Yeasts, truffles, morels, athlete's foot, ringworm, powdery mildew, refrigerator mold (penicillium) aspergillus, and cup fungi.
Sac Fungi (Ascomycota)
Septate molds Include: Mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi
Club Fungi (Basidiomycota)
The sexual spores formed by black bread molds (Rhizopus) are called?
Hyphae, such as those of black bread molds, that are not septate are described as being
Members of the phylum Glomeromycota are root symbionts with vascular plats. These mutualistic associations are called:
Fungal cell which has two different but allelic compatible nuclei
6 Groups of Fungi
Cryptomycota, Chytrids (Chytridiomycota), Black Bread Mold (Zygomycota), (Glomeromycota), Sac Fungi (Ascomycota), Club Fungi (Basidiomycota)
Which two fungal phyla form dikaryotic hyphae
Sac Fungi (Ascomycete) and Club Fungi (Basidiomycete)
Many members of the Sac Fungi (Ascomycota) commonly reproduce asexually by pinching off cells from the tips of hyphae. These reproductive cells are called:
Sexual spores are formed by ascomycete fungi within sac-like cells called:
Sexual spores are formed by basidiomycete fungi at the tips of club like cells called:
Both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi form septate reproductive hyphae whose cells each contain two nuclei of different mating types. These hyphae are described as being:
Lichen is a mutualistic relationship formed by
Fungus and Unicellular algae
Which eukaryotic supergroup includes the animals
Animal development usually involves:
Blastulation and Gastrulation
During early embryonic development, most animals form an archenteron, whose only connection to the outside is by an opening called the:
Which three germ layers are present in a triploblastic animal?
Endoderm, Ectoderm and Mesoderm
An animal that has a body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm is described as being:
An animal that has a body cavity that is only partially lined with mesoderm is described as being:
An animal that lacks a body cavity is described as being:
Produced by repetitive structural features that make the body.
Having 2 or more axis of symmetry (cnidarians)
Having 1 axis of symmetry (most Animalia)
Blastopore develops into the mouth.
Cleavage is spiral.
Cells of the early embryo are determinate.
Schizocoelous (Mesoderm formation differs)
Blastopore develops into the anus.
Cleavage is radial.
Early Development cells are indeterminate.
Which animal phylum lacks symmetry, germ layers, and true tissues/organs
Which animal phylum has radial symmetry
The swimming stage of the Cnidarian life cycle
The non-motile stage of the Cnidarian life cycle
The nervous system a cnidarian consists a dispersed system of nervous tissue called
Juvenile stage which is structurally and often ecologically distinct from the adult
What has been used to infer phylogeny in the Animalia kingdom
Body Plane and Development
The gastrovascular cavity of a cnidarian can be used as a hydrostatic skeleton. What is a hydrostatic skeleton?
A fluid filled cavity within the body that is supported by an aqueous solution which resists external compression
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