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the study of patterns and rates of population change,inclduing birth and death rates,migration trends,and evolving population distribution patterns.


population count

population density

a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

Arithmetic population density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

Population composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

age sex pyramid

a graphic representation of the age & sex of a population

crude birth rate(CBR)

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

crude death rate(CDR)

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

infant mortality

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population

total fertility rate

the average number of children a woman has in her lifetime

demographic transition (cycle)

Multistage model based on Western Europe's experiences of change in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization.

doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

exponential growth

cumalitive or compound growth (of a population) over a given time period.

linear growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

natural increase

population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

stationary population level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

absolute direction

a compass direction such as north or south

relative direction

direction based on a person's perception of places;such as left and right.

absolute distance

The physical distance between two points usually measured in a standard length like miles or kilometers.

relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

pull factors

positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas

activity (action) space

the space within which daily activity occurs.

cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally


movement among a definite set of places

seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.


the movement of persons from one country or locality to another


movement of individuals out of a population

forced migration

human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

external migration

migration across an international border

interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

counter migration

the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated

intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

temporary refugees

refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement

permanent refugees

person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home

international refugees

refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation

intranational refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

Eugenic population policy

government policy designed to favor one race over another

Expansive population policy

government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

Negative population growth

the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases


a person who has to leave his or her country to find safety.

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