55 terms

Myth terms

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chaos
In Greek mythology, Chaos or Khaos is the primeval state of existence from which the first gods appeared. In other words, the dark void of space. It is made from a mixture of what the Ancient Greeks considered the four elements: earth, air, water and fire.
gaia
In Greek mythology, Gaia (/ˈɡeɪ.ə/ or /ˈɡaɪ.ə/ from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia is the ancestral mother of all life: the primal Mother Earth goddess.
tartarus
In Greek mythology, Tartarus (/ˈtɑːrtərəs/; Ancient Greek: Τάρταρος Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
uranus
was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His name in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth.
cronos
Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy.
rhea
Rhea (/ˈriːə/; Greek: Ῥέα [r̥é.a͜a]) is a character in Greek mythology, the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus as well as sister and wife to Cronus.
titans
Titan, in Greek religion and mythology, one of 12 primeval deities. The female Titan is also called Titaness. The Titans—six sons and six daughters—were the children of Uranus and Gaea. They were Kronos, Iapetus, Hyperion, Oceanus, Coeus, Creus, Theia, Rhea, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, and Themis.
cyclopes
a member of a race of savage one-eyed giants. In the Odyssey, Odysseus escaped death by blinding the Cyclops Polyphemus.
hectonchires
Hekatonkheires. The Hekatonkheires or Hecatonchires (Ancient Greek: Ἑκατόγχειρες) "Hundred-Handed Ones", were figures in an archaic stage of Greek mythology, three giants of incredible strength and ferocity that surpassed that of all Titans whom they helped overthrow.
zeus
His name clearly comes from that of the sky god Dyaus of the ancient Hindu Rigveda. Zeus was regarded as the sender of thunder and lightning, rain, and winds, and his traditional weapon was the thunderbolt. He was called the father (i.e., the ruler and protector) of both gods and men.
hera
Hera (Roman name: Juno), wife of Zeus and queen of the ancient Greek gods, represented the ideal woman and was goddess of marriage and the family. However, she was perhaps most famous for her jealous and vengeful nature, principally aimed against the lovers of her husband and their illegitimate offspring
aprhodite' birth
Aphrodite, ancient Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, identified with Venus by the Romans. The Greek word aphros means "foam," and Hesiod relates in his Theogony that Aphrodite was born from the white foam produced by the severed genitals of Uranus (Heaven), after his son Cronus threw them into the sea.
prometheus
In Greek mythology, the Titan Prometheus had a reputation as being something of a clever trickster and he famously gave the human race the gift of fire and the skill of metalwork, an action for which he was punished by Zeus, who ensured everyday that an eagle ate the liver of the Titan. Prometheus is credited with the creation of man.
epimetheus
Epimetheus was one of the Titans, son of Iapetus and Clymene. He was the brother of Prometheus, Atlas and Menoetius. His name is derived from the Greek word meaning 'afterthought', which is the antonym of his brother's name, Prometheus, meaning 'forethought'.
pandora
In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "the all-gifted" or "the all-giving") was the first human woman created by the gods, specifically by Hephaestus and Athena on the instructions of Zeus.
sarpedon
Sarpedon, in Greek legend, son of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Laodameia, the daughter of Bellerophon; he was a Lycian prince and a hero in the Trojan War. As recounted in Homer's Iliad, Book XVI, Sarpedon fought with distinction on the side of the Trojans but was slain by the Greek warrior Patroclus.
tiamat
Tiamat. Is a primordial Babylonian goddess of the ocean and personification of chaos. She gave birth to the first generation of gods, and later, she was killed by the storm god, Marduk. From her divided body came the heavens and the Earth.
marduk
Marduk (cuneiform: 𒀭𒀫𒌓 dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios; Hebrew: מְרֹדַךְ‬, Modern Mərōdaḵ, Tiberian Merōḏaḵ) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
apsu
created by the merging of Apsu (the watery deep beneath the earth) and Tiamat (the personification of the salt waters); this is described in the Babylonian mythological text Enuma elish (c. 12th century bc). ... ...existed only the male (Apsu) and female (Tiamat) gods of the deep.
myth
a traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events.
Characters:Divine
Belief: Fact
Time: remote past
Place: other or earlier world
Attitude: Sacred
legend
a traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated.
Characters:Human/semi-divine
Belief: fact
Time: recent past
Place: world familiar to readers
Attitude: sacred or secular
folklore
the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through the generations by word of mouth.
ordinary people/animals
fiction
present or past
any world
secular
animism
belief that non-human entities possess a spiritual essence, belief that supernatural power organize, controls and animates the material universe
anthropomorphism
attribution of human characteristics to something not human, by making the gods seem more human, the greeks could try to influence them
cuneiform
denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
myceneans
Also called Mycenaean Greek. the earliest recorded Greek dialect, written in the Linear B syllabary and dating from the 15th through the 13th centuries b.c.
Cup of Nestor
Beside it she set an ornate vessel Nestor had brought from Greece, studded with gold, with four handles, each handle mounted on two supports and adorned above with two pecking doves. Nestor could lift it easily, though others could hardly lift the cup when full.
autochthonous
Erichthonius was an early king of ancient Athens in Greek mythology, and it was believed that he was autochthonous (born of the soil). According to the myth, Athena visited Hephaestus' workshop to ask for weapons. However, the smith god tried to seduce the virgin goddess, who fled in disgust.
parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell
hieros gamos
is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.
aetiology
Etiology is the study of causation, or origination.
cosmology
the science of the origin and development of the universe. Modern astronomy is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
attribute
aka symbols (ex. Zeus= thunder bolt, lightning, eagle
epithet
essentially nicknames given to people (ex. Horkius= Guardian of Oaths
cult vs ritual
Cult: repeated action directed toward a divinity in a particular place Ritual: description of these actions (sacrifice, prayer, dance, processions....)
titanomachy
Titanomachy (/ˌtaɪtəˈnɒməki/ Greek: Τιτανομαχία Titanomakhia, "Titan battle") was a ten-year series of battles fought in Thessaly, consisting of most of the Titans (an older generation of gods, based on Mount Othrys) fighting against the Olympians (the younger generations, who would come to
gigantomachy
(in Greek mythology) the struggle between the gods and the giants.
Mekone (Mecone)
The trick at Mecone was an event in Greek mythology in which Prometheus tricked Zeus for mankind's benefit, and thus incurred his wrath. It is unusual among Greek myths for being etiological, i.e. explaining the origins of an object or custom
The Ages of Man (5)
Golden age. When the deathless gods created the golden race of men, it was a time of prosperity and peace that allowed all living beings to live in harmony, to be happy and in love. ...
Silver age. ...
Bronze age. ...
Age of Heroes. ...
Iron age.
Hesiod
Wrote Theogony, and Works and Days
Homer
Greek Epic Poet (wasn't a real person) associated with The Iliad and The Odyssey
Vergil
Virgil, also spelled Vergil, Latin in full Publius Vergilius Maro, (born October 15, 70 bce, Andes, near Mantua [Italy]—died September 21, 19 bce, Brundisium), Roman poet, best known for his national epic, the Aeneid (from c. 30 bce; unfinished at his death).
Ovid
Ovid (43 bc-c.17 ad), Roman poet. He is particularly known for his elegiac love poems (such as the Amores and the Ars Amatoria) and for the Metamorphoses, a hexametric epic which retells Greek and Roman myths.
Aeschylus
Aeschylus was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is often described as the father of tragedy. Academics' knowledge of the genre begins with his work, and understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays.
James Frazier
...
Bronislaw Malinowski
"Myth of the Primitive Culture", general principles that apply to all cultures, coherent and integrated system to cope with problems and satisfy needs (education, economies, beliefs, marriage, agriculture, tools, houses, art)
Theogony
birth of the gods, Aetiology: investigation and explanation of the beginning, the course of things, how things came about, cosmic order arising from Chaos
works and days
agricultural and moral guidebook, explains why humans suffer (Prometheus and Pandora), 5 ages: Gold, Silver, Bronnze, Heroic, Iron
Enuma Elish
Babylonian creation story, Marduk overthrows the goddess Tiamat and her children. Marduk is the child of Ea, who is a descendent of Tiamat and Apsu
the Greek Timeline
Timeline of ancient Greece. This is a timeline of Ancient Greece from its emergence around 800 BC to its subjection to the Roman Empire in 146 BC. For earlier times, see Greek Dark Ages, Aegean civilizations and Mycenaean Greece. For later times see Roman Greece, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Greece.
"Dark ages"
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire
Archaic Period
Greek expansion and colonization of mediterranean, Greek Alphabet, independent city states (Polis), Homer
classical period
Greek and Roman, cross cultural influence
Different ways myth is transmitted
oral, text, visual
Man's creation/role in world
Man created in various ways in three main creation stories, in Enuma Elish and Theogony man is created to serve the gods