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Terms in this set (73)
Kinetic Molecular Model
- explains the properties of solids and liquids in terms of the molecular forces of attraction and the kinetic energy of the individual particles.
- (attractive forces between neighbouring particles of one or more substances) pull the particles together.
- keeps particles at a distance and/or moving around. It is dependent on the temperature of the substance.
____ assume a crystalline structure when they have a highly ordered packing arrangement.
- particles of an ionic compound
- may only exist as liquids due to relatively weaker intermolecular forces.
Van der Waals forces
- all intermolecular forces of attraction in a pure substance.
- exists between polar molecules.
- are those that possess a permanent dipole moment attributed to the difference in electronegativities of their component atoms and how these atoms are arranged in space.
- a special type of dipole-dipole interaction that exists only in molecules that contain hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom such as N, O or F
- is about five to ten times stronger than other dipole-dipole attractions.
- is not a real chemical bond participated in by electrons. It is intermolecular in nature
- electrons are involved and shared between atoms. It is a type of intermolecular force of attraction.
- acts between an ion (either positive or negative) and a polar molecule
- becomes stronger either as the charge of the ion increases, or as the magnitude of the dipole moment of the polar molecule increases
degree of ion-dipole interaction
The ____ depends on the size and charge of the ion and on the size and dipole moment of the polar molecule.
- or simply dispersion forces, are intermolecular forces of attraction that exist between all atoms and molecules.
- the only forces acting in nonpolar molecules.
- have zero dipole moment because their electron density is uniform and symmetrical.
- or instantaneous dipole, induce dipoles in neighbouring molecules
size of a molecule
The ____ can affect the London dispersion force between two molecules. The bigger the molecule the stronger the attraction between two molecules.
- property of a liquid to resist an external force and thus assume a lesser surface area
- the resistance of a liquid to flow. Thickness or thinness of water
The greater the intermolecular forces, the more ___ the substance
- pressure exerted by its vapor when in equilibrium with its liquid or solid.
- is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the external or atmospheric pressure
Normal Boiling Point
- the temperature at which a liquid boils under an atmospheric pressure of 760mm Hg
The ___ of a liquid is influenced by the strength of its intermolecular forces. The greater the attractive forces, the higher the energy needed to increase the kinetic energy of the molecules to break these forces
Molar Heat of vaporization
- the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole od a substance at its boiling point.
Molar Heat of vaporization
- is determined by the strength of the intermolecular forces between molecules.
- solid that have a highly regular arrangement of particles
- solids that have considerable disorder in their structure
- are formed rather rapidly that its constituent particles do not have time to align or organize into a more definite crystalline lattice.
- is a three-dimensional system of points designating the positions of the components (atoms, ions or molecules) that make up a crystal
- the smallest repeating unit of a lattice.
- ions are held together by strong coulombic forces
- has discrete covalently bonded molecules at each of its lattice points
- are composed of metal atoms bonded together by metallic bonds
- are covalently bonded atoms that form a continuous network.
Group 8A solid
- consists of atoms of noble gases held together by London dispersion forces
- occur with increased temperature
- process in which solid into vapor
- is a graphical representation of the pressure-temperature relationships that apply to the equilibria between the phases of a substance
- useful in determining the combination of temperature and pressure at which substance will exist as solid, liquid or gas, or the conditions at which two phases exist in equilibrium.
- is where all the three phases coexist in equilibrium
- the temperature-pressure condition at and above which the vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied.
- is a substance that has temperature above its critical temperature and a density near its liquid density
- are mixture of two or more substance evenly distributed throughout a single phase
- the substance dissolved in a solution, usually present in smaller amount.
- is the dissolving medium.
- a solution that contains less solute than the solvent's capacity to dissolve.
- contains the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can dissolve at a certain temperature.
- contains more dissolved solute than is present in a saturated solution. This type of solution is unstable
For two substances to form a solution, they must have the same nature in terms of ___
(expanding the solvent - endothermic)
Overcoming the intermolecular forces in the solvent to give room for the solute.
(expanding the solute - exothermic)
Separating the solute into its individual components
Allowing the solute and the solvent to interact to form the solution
Enthalpy of solution
- is the enthalpy change associated with the formation of the solution
- is a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
- a component in a solution that is equal to the number of moles of that component divided by the total number of moles of all the components present.
- the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
- the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Parts per million
- the number of parts of solute per one million parts of the solution
- is the maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature
Ionic and polar solutes are soluble in polar solvents. While nonpolar solutes are soluble in nonpolar solvents.
- properties that depend solely on the number of solute particles in a solution. Include vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure. Are influenced by the extent of dissociation of the solute in a solution.
electrolytic or nonelectrolytic
Solutions that depend on the nature of their components can be classified as ___ or ___.
- are particles that ionize in a solution, as a result, they conduct electricity
- are those that do not ionize at all in a solution and thus not conduct electricity
- states that vapor pressure of a solvent over a solution is equal to the product of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent
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