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The Progressive Era
Terms in this set (59)
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 25, 1911: Hundreds of young women and a few men were sewing. These workers were in the eighth and ninth floors of building and a fire broke out. The fire grew larger and larger because of all the cloth. The workers ran to the doors but they were locked/jammed. Few escaped, while others jumped out window and chose their own fate for their death. [This event shows that the working conditions were not good in the US proving poverty, exhausting labor and early death therefore establishing the need for reform. ]
Jim Crow Laws
These imposed very strict segregation laws for blacks pertaining to streetcars, trains, school parks, public buildings and cemeteries. The laws treated blacks poorly giving them back educational poverty. [These laws were a legal way of oppressing blacks after they gain their "freedom" it shows that after reconstruction the United States is back to where they started in a different form.]
Ragtime, Blues, & Jazz
Scott Joplin transformed the music of black bars in ragtime which is a catchy rhythmic style that became popular. The blues was derived from mournful chants of southern sharecroppers like W.C. Handy. Jazz came from New Orleans from a band called Buddy Bolden during the time of WWI. [This shows that along with many social movements in the country, there were artistic and musical movements.]
He was the first professional forester and also the chief forester of the US Department of Agriculture. In these jobs, Pinchot campaigned not only for the preservation but also conservation, which is the planned regulated use of the nation's forest lands for various public and commercial purposes. Pinchot's job came from the early wilderness-preservation movement trying to save the environment. [This proves that people were starting to become aware of environmental issues.]
Fredrick W. Taylor's "Principle of Scientific Management"
In this book, Taylor talks about rewarding the fastest workers and standardizing job routines in order to increase efficiency. Large business referred to this as Taylorism, which became catchy. Taylorism was a way to make people as fast as machines, in order to make processes quicker. [This system also helped to improve factory conditions and treatment of workers.]
Danbury Hatter's Case
This was one of many anti-urband court decisions, in 1908 the Supreme Court decided to limit unions' rights to set up boycotts in support to strikes. The court said a union boycott was thought to be a "conspiracy in restraint of trade," which was a violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. [This case illustrates judicial hostility trying to stop the labor movements.]
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Also known as ILGWU was organized in 1900 by immigrants working in New York City's needle trades. [This was a union that tried to reach the laborers at the lower end of the scale.] In 1909 the ILGWU had a successful strike and another in 1911 after the Triangle Fire. Many of those involved in strikes lost their jobs and were even beaten by police officers.
"Big Bill" Haywood & the Industrial Workers of the World
William D. Haywood, "Big Bill" was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World. The IWW was [a union that targeted the most exploited workers.] The IWW, also known as the wobblies was founded in Chicago in 1905. Big Bell formed the IWW because in 1895 when he was a miner, himself, and two other union leaders were charged for the murder of the governor of Idaho. The IWW was composed of western miners, lumber men, fruit pickers, itinerant laborers and cultural rebels of New York City's Greenwich Village.
Eugene V. Debs & the Socialist Party of America
This group was founded in 1900 by democratic socialists. The SPA, Eugene V. Debs was the Indiana labor leader who had converted to socialism during his imprisonment after the 1894 Pullman strike. Debs had become a presidential candidate five time in between the years 19000 and 1920 due to his popularity. [This shows how people were starting to lean towards socialism]
Herbert Croly's The Promise of American Life, New Republic
Herbert Croly captured the progressive faith in the power of ideas to transform society. In 1909 he wrote, the Promise of American Life which Croly proclaimed that we needed an activist federal government, almost as Alexander Hamilton had said in the 1790s. A government that would serve all its citizens and not only the capitalist class. Herbert also insisted that the only way to achieve this was to get intellectuals involved.
John Dewey was one of the main people to change educational ideas, which went along with this time period because public school enrollment had particularly tripled. Dewey believed that a harmonious society could be built on through scientific intelligent application of scientific method to social problems. He viewed intelligence as an instrument of social action, this is called instrumentalist. Dewey emphasized social independence, for children to move around, ask questions, and interact with other students and the teacher. in Dewey;s the values of democracy and cooperation as well as embodying these values through methods and curriculum. [Dewey was the beginning of an educational movement, that said everyone needs an education.]
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
He was one of the main supporters of new legal philosophy. Holmes was one of the hew who supported a more flexible view on education. in his book, The Common Law, Holmes declared that law must evolve as society changes. As the progressive movement began, Oliver Wendall Holmes Jr. was appointed to the supreme court in 1902. His opinion differed from many of he conservations in the court. [Holmes led intellectual and academics to put laissez-faire aside and make a new social ethic.]
Frank Norris' "The Octopus"
He wrote The Octopus in 1901, and in it he portrayed the struggle between ruthless railroad owners and wheat growers in California. Like Norris many novelists were trying to how everyone that large corporations are greedy and don't care about urban growth. Frank Norris exposed corrupt politicians conspiring with the powerful Southern Pacific Railroad to exploit California farmers. These novelists helped transform progressivism into a national movement that involved the middle class.
Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
Upton Sinclair's, The Jungle, had the most popular response out of all the progressive reforms. He campaigned against unsafe and falsely labeled food, drugs and medicine. In his book, Sinclair describes the awful conditions in factories. Sinclair wanted to expose the immigrant workers and the unsanitary conditions but instead the country was appalled by what they were eating. This shows how much novelists and journalists influenced their leaders.
He was a Norwegian American from Minnesota. He had received a Ph.D from Yale in 1884 but he could not hold onto a job. Veblen wrote the Theory of the leisure class in 1899 about the values and life styles of the Gilded Age business elite. He argued that engineers were a better fit to lead society then the business class because of their strict discipline of machine. Veblen talked about his like for efficiency, science and technical expertise that was the base of progressive impulse. Veblen was one of the many intellectuals who laid the ideology that founded progressivism.
He was a muckracker who created the photo book "How The Other Half Lives" (1890.) This book was very effective because it captured New York in poverty through photos. People did not need to be able to read, they could simply look at the photos of impoverished communities and street orphans. This spurs reform in orphanages and urban poverty because his photos stuck a chord with the public. It gave people an easy way to see what was happening in "the other half" of the world.
Tarbell was a brave woman who wrote "History of Standard Oil Company" in 1904. Standard Oil had evaded government interference for so long and Ida wanted to stop that. She attacked the company's trust abuses so effectively and in so much detail that it led to the prosecution of Standard Oil in 1911. Rockefeller was forced to sell half of his company to break the monopoly. Her work on exposing a large company was the first of its kind up until that point.
These were journalists and reporters of the Progressive Era who contributed heavily to initiating reform in America. These investigators exposed the inferior parts of the United States that Americans were oblivious to. They exposed corruption and scandals in corporations and in government and other public abuses affecting American Society. [This helped push for progressivism and creates public out roar against the exposed abuses.]
He was the governor of Wisconsin and was elected as an Independent going against party leadership. He started to change Wisconsin's state government against business interests. His administration adopted the direct primary system, set up commission to regulate railroads operating in the state, increasing corporate taxes and passed a law to limit campaign spending. This was known as the "Wisconsin Idea." He even created a library filled only with books about literary references so lawmakers did not learn from political bosses. Other government officials followed suit. [He set political trends in turn changing the government.]
"White Slave," Hysteria and the Mann Act
At this time, movies based on sexual motives and prostitution took flight, "white slave" hysteria was when articles, nooks, newspapers, etc warned that innocent girls from farms were being kidnapped and sold into city life (prostitution or unethical means) [This led to the creation of the Mann Act (1910) which made it illegal by federal law to transport a female across state borders for unethical reasons. This forced many prostitution businesses in big cities to shut down or do so discreetly. This leads to hidden human trafficking and illegal movement of people and forcing people into prostitution.]
Anti-Saloon League and the Women's Christian Temperance Union
The Anti-Saloon League (ASL) pushed for legal abolition of alcoholic drinks rather than the "take the pledge," method Americans had. The WCTU supported the ASL as well as many church agencies. They used propaganda from their press bases in Ohio to tell Americans that alcohol was essentially ruining their lives. This leads to the abolition of alcohol through the 18th amendment in 1919. This was the last Progressive Social Reform group to achieve its goal.
Booker T. Washington and his "Atlanta Compromise" Speech
Washington was America's greatest black leader from the 1890s to 1915. His approach for integration and equal rights differed from many people. n his speech, he insisted blacks must first prove their social and economic value in society as well as gain skills needed to compete in society. He stated that if this occurred, racism would fade away when people realized black were as capable as whites. [He gained a lot of white support and Northern blacks hatred] because his speech implied a racist society in some ways was "okay."
Was America's first black PhD recipient and Booker T. Washington's biggest opposition. He wrote "The Souls of Black Folk" (1903) in which he wrote why he and many other blacks disagreed with Washington's argument. DuBois demanded immediate educational and societal rights (same as whites) and stated blacks must suffer without capitulation until they gained rights. [This led to a whole new era of black activism.] He spoke for the masses of African Americans who would no longer tolerate oppression.
Created in 1909 was the National Association on for the Advancement of Colored People. It was born from a combination of angry blacks from the Afro-American Council and angry whites. These people were dissatisfied with Washington's point of view and steam rolled toward equality. The NAACP pushed for total political equality and a stop to all racial discrimination. By 1914, the NAACP had 6000 members. [This would lead to more national attention and another push for racial equality.]
The Woman's Party
Founded by Alice Paul in 1913, [this party brought direst pressure onto the United States government to approve a woman's suffrage amendment. Paul and her party convinced women it was Wilson and his democratic responsible for the lack of woman's rights. They picketed The White House, holding signs accusing Wilson of wrong doings. They were jailed, arrested and force fed when on hunger strikes. But, they were recognized and together with women's help during the war they were granted the right to vote.
Charlotte Perkins Gillman, Florence Kelley, Alice Hamilton
Perkins wrote "Women and Economics" when stated that women were predominantly living domestic lives and completely dependent on men economically therefore proving that they should be taught to live outside the household. Gilman discovered lead poisoning in industry and campaigned against work-realted health hazards. Hamilton helped secure passage of Illinois law prohibiting child labor and limited women's work day hours. She worked to improve factory standards. [This gave Americans a whole new aspect to view and showed them the abuses and perils of their country.]
Northern Securities Case
Teddy Roosevelts attorney general filed a lawsuit against Northern Securities Company in 1902 because Roosevelt wanted to break up company monopolies and trusts. The case was seen by the Supreme Court and in 1904 a 5 to 4 verdict was reached that the National Securities Co. would have to break up. [This reflects the 43 other companies that Roosevelt sued and forced to dissolve. Roosevelt shifted the majority of the power away from large companies.]
Theodore Roosevelt's "Square Deal"
This was aimed to protect the middle class citizens and business from organized labor demands as well as attack bad trusts. It had 3 major components: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. [This brought a new era of Progressivism and is sometimes seen as a factor that led to FDR's new deal.]
Preservationists Vs. Conservationists
Preservationists are people who wish to protect the historical significance of a structure from destruction or demolition. They want to persevere its beauty and appeal. A conservationist is someone who believes we should plan and regulate the use of America's forests. This conservation movement is viewed as a smaller part of a larger environmental movement. [While having different beliefs, both were fighting for the same cause.]
Bull Moose Party
Formerly known as the Progressive Party. Theodore Roosevelt created this party when running against Taft in 1912. This party supported: woman suffrage, 8 hour work day, abolition of child labor, tariff reduction, the direct primary and business regulation. This set America in a mood to reform, and Taft gave up. Wilson, as a democrat, adopted these reform ideas and became Roosevelt's competitor.
New Nationalism & New Freedom
During the election of 1912 Theodore Roosevelt preached New Nationalism,: government regulation of big business in the public interest and Woodrow Wilson preached New Freedom: an earlier era of small entrepreneurs and free competition. Wilson agreed that government was wrong to break them up. [These two things show the political will of time because both candidates are calling for progressive policies (strength of the reform pulse.)]
The "Brandeis Brief"
Defending the constitutionality of the Oregon law was Boston attorney Louis Brandeis, who offered economic, medical and sociological evidence of the harmful effects of long hours on women workers. [The court's acceptance of the "Brandeis Brief" marked a major breakthrough in making the nation's legal system more responsive to new social realities that are favoring business.]
Referendum, Recall & Initiative
It was at the state level that some of the most important political work of progressives took place. [The reforms in states allowed citizens to have a more direct role in the political process] Referendum: process: by petition allowed voters to directly pass legislation into law. Recall process: by petition allowed voters to force officials to stand for election at any time after a year into their term. Initiative process: allowed citizens to propose a new law. If he or she got enough signatures, the new law would appear on the ballot. Then 5% of voters would be needed to initiate the law in the state legislature.
Muller Vs. Oregon
(1908) the Supreme Court upheld in Oregon ten hour law for women laundry workers. [This shows the dramatic evidence of the moderating judicial climate.]
Bunting Vs. Oregon
(1913) Prescribed a 10 hour work day for both men and women, expanding the law regulation women's hours upheld in Muller vs Oregon. The Measure also required time and a half wages for over time up to 3 hours a day. [This furthered the moderating judicial climate.]
the 16th Amendment
(ratified in 1913) granted Congress the authority to income tax. [This expanded the United States domestic economic power.]
the 17th Amendment
(1913) Mandated the direct election of US Senators. [This gave this people more political power.]
the 18th Amendment
(1919) Established nationwide prohibition. This was Progressive Era Reform success.
the 19th Amendment
(1920) Granted women the right to vote. This was a Progressive Era Reform success.
Was aimed primarily at railroad rebates in which heavy fines could now be imposed both on railroads that gave rebated but on the favored shippers that accepted them. [This is significant because this was the first step in Roosevelt's goal to regulate railroads and it would lead to further railroad reform.]
[Further tightened existing railroad regulation.] The Interstate Commerce
Commission was able to set maximum railroad reates and to examine railroads' financial records (which must be kept in standardized booking.) It also put a restriction on the railroads distribution of free passes. [This act significantly increased the governments ability to regulate railroads.]
In 1902 Theodore Roosevelt filled a suit against the Northern Securities Company (a recently formed company formed by railroad and backing interests to control railroading in the Northwest) on the grounds that the company was violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. TR attacked the railroad monopoly and the Supreme Court dissolved the Northern Securities Company. The Sherman Act helped dissolve business monopolies and helped win 43 law suits with businesses such as the Standard Oil Company and reorganized the American Tobacco Company to make it less monopolized. [This is significant because it took economic power out of the hands of the very few and brought back a higher sense of business competition.]
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
(1914) Was a more clear Sherman Anti-Trust Act that stated a series of illegal practices in order to restrict monopolies and set up a Federal Trade Commission to stop unfair practices from arising. [This act allowed the Wilson Administration to file almost a hundred antitrust suits against corporations and contributed to free speech and the right to protest]
Meat Inspection Act
(1906) Was a direct response to Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle." The law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of a good meat and health-minded procedures. [This act created an obligation to provide Americans with safe products. We now protected people who were buying the products as well as fighting injustices to the employees.]
Pure Food & Drug Act
(1906) Was also a result of Sinclair's "The Jungle." It required that companies accurately label the ingredients of products and it outlawed the sale of adulterated good or drugs. [This act helped contribute to the idea of public health safety and protected the health of the public.]
Reduced rates by an average of 15 percent and placed a number of items including steel and iron on the free lists. It also imposed an income tax. [This act gave the first significant tariff reduction since the 1860s as Wilson personally delivered his goals to Congress.]
Federal Reserve Act
(1913) Was Wilson's greatest legislative achievement, the act created a network of twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks under mixed public and private control. Each bank was authorized to issue currency, called Federal Reserve Notes. These banks could in turn loan money to corporations and individual borrowers. [This act set up capability of "The Fed" growing into a strong institution capable of directing the nations monetary policy.]
Federal Farm Loan Act
(1916) Made it possible from farmers, using land or crops as security to secure long-term, low-interest federal loans. [This act placed agriculture on an equal footing financially with other industries and gave farmers financial opportunities that were non-existent before this act due to their occupation.]
Federal Trade Commission Act
(1914) Created a five member federal "watchdog" agency with power to investigate suspected violations of federal regulatory statues, to require regular reports from corporations and to issue "cease and desist" orders when it found unfair methods of bus competition. [This made sure reforms and laws created in 20th century were followed strictly; law and order]
(1915) - gave merchant marines the same rights that were recently granted to factory workers. This act helped improve living and working conditions for the crews of ships registered in the US during the Seaman's Act's passage. [This act established safety rights and showed government recognition of the dangers for merchant marines.] The act mandated the following: abolished imprisonment for desertion; reduced penalties for disobedience; regulated hours to work, guaranteed minimum standards of cleanliness and safety, certain amount of lifeboats required, the ability of seamen to sue for damages against negligent ship workers etc.
Workingman's Compensation Act
(1916) - established an all purpose protection program for Federal employees and their dependents in the event of accident and injury. [This act is important because it appealed to the common man and the majority. It was part of Wilson's platform.]
(1916) - Was a part of Wilson's platform and it established an eight hour workday for interstate railway workers and additional pay for overtime work. [Wilson and this act showed concern for the common man, their health, well being and their rights.]
(1920) - Provided a remedy to sailors for injuries or death resulting from the negligence of an owner, master or fellow sailor on a vessel. It allows them to sue the negligent employer and receive a jury trial. [It gave the working class a chance to fight for justice against their unjust leader.]
Desert Land Act
(1887) - The federal government sold dry land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser would irrigate the soil within 3 years. [This was the first step towards land conservation and began to address important environmental concerns.]
Forest Reserve Act
(1891) - This was a more successful step to conserve public forests as national parks and other reserves. [This was a huge point of the conservation movement to preserve natural resources for generations to come.] Roosevelt would later set aside 125 reserves.
(1894) - Distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled. [This would allow expansion but still conserve the land for other governments.]
(1902) - This authorized the federal government to collect money fro the state of public lands in western states and then use these funds for the development of irrigation projects. [This brings water to the Southwest therefore allowing expansion]
(1909) - A measure that raised the rates on hundreds of items. [This drew battle lines between conservative and progressive republicans]
Charles Evan Hughes
Was the GOP candidate in 1916. He was a supreme court justice and former governor of New York. [The Progressives endorsed Hughes and effectively ended their role as a third party.]
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