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Arts and Humanities
FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION & CLARITY
Terms in this set (18)
FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION
Arguments that make unwarranted assumption about the
data or the nature of a reasonable argument.
Fallacies of Presupposition
Arguments that contain hidden assumptions that make
Begging the Question (petitio principii)
Arguments that assume the very same thing that one is trying to prove.
Bifurcation (False Dilemma)
Arguments that frame the debate such that only two options are possible, when other possibilities may exist.
Fallacy of Moderation
Arguments that assume the correct answer is always the middle ground or a compromise between two extremes.
Arguments that assume that just because something is a certain way, it ought to be that way.
Fallacy of Composition
Arguments based on a hidden assumption that the properties of the whole will be the same as the properties of the parts.
Fallacy of Division
Arguments that are based on the hidden assumption that a
collective whole determines that all of its parts will be like the whole.
Fallacies of Induction
Arguments that misuse empirical data or don't follow proper methods of inductive reasoning.
Sweeping Generalization (Accident)
Arguments that overextend a generalization to include facts or cases chat are exceptions to it.
Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)
Arguments that make a generalization on the basis of too
Arguments that fail because they create an analogy between two things that are not similar enough to warrant an analogy.
Arguments that are based on a weak cause-and-effect connection.
Arguments that use numbers or statistics in a way that is too precise to be justified by the situation.
Fallacies of Clarity
Arguments that fail because they contain words, phrases, or syntax that distort or cloud their meanings.
Arguments that fail because a key term is ambiguous
Arguments that rest on an improper emphasis placed on certain words or phrases.
Distinction Without a Difference
Argument that makes a linguistic distinction between two things that are actually not different from each other.
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