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Terms in this set (82)
The assertion that all knowledge about the world is based on our senses.
States the moral standards people accept are different from culture to culture.
The two parts of an argument are the premise and conclusion.
Area of philosophy concerned with nature and structure of reality.
The branch of philosophy that deals with beauty and art
NOT a Pre-Socratic Philosopher
Love of wisdom
The word Philosophy is a combination of Greek words meaning
Why does Socrates compare himself to a Gadfly?
He persuades and reproaches the people of Athens
What is the first step in the Socratic Method?
Socrates poses a question
Socrates believed what about the soul?
It is immortal
Plato argued that genuine knowledge is recollected through
Plato argued the ideal society corresponds with the tripartite soul and includes producers, auxiliaries, and guardians.
According to Plato, the soul consists of reason, the appetites, and spirit.
The difference between a meritocracy and a democracy is a meritocracy considers the will of the people as a whole and a democracy considers what is best for the elite.
Plato's Allegory of the Cave compares gaining knowledge with:
A man being taken out of the cave.
Epicurus argued that you should look WHERE to find happiness?
What are the three requirements for Epicurean happiness?
Friendship, freedom, and thought.
The idea that every man has the same fate, will live and suffer and die at the hand of providence. (Care of God)
Why shouldn't we have optimism?
We get frustrated when people and events don't live up to our expectations.
What is Seneca's solution to anger?
Adjust our expectations. If we can curb our optimism, we won't be so angry when they let us down.
Fortuna is associated with what four things?
money, success, love, and health.
Seneca proposes we should do what every morning?
Think about everything that could go wrong.
Stoics believed that wisdom lies where?
correctly correlating where we have control and where we do not.
Post Hoc fallacy
Assumes causation where there may be no connection at all. Example: There is an increase in college enrollment and crime. Therefore, college enrollment causes crime.
Christianity's first great philosopher
The Confessions consisted of what three things?
Augustine's life of sin, regret, and conversion.
What theory gives religion and reason a way to coexist?
Theory of Natural Law
a law based on the fundamental nature of what it means to be human
Most important philosopher of Jewish history and wrote the Book of Commandments.
Hildegard, the Mystic
She saw visions and wrote the, Book of Divine Works.
Occurs when a statement is claimed to be true by essentially saying the same thing twice.
Which philosopher is associated with skepticism?
Pyrrho of Elis
Stoicism is difficult for many to achieve because it requires a complete lack of emotion.
Epicurus advised against unnecessarily extravagant desires because
Such desires invite pain
Stoicism was attractive at the time of its inception because
It offers the antidote to all people, offers an antidote to all the miseries of the world, and it preaches that all men are brothers.
What Hellenistic philosophy would say that a good life is a life free of trouble?
Which philosopher is responsible for the Five Ways argument for God's existence?
Why is Hildegard of Bingen an important philosopher of her time?
One of the first religious mystics in the west, encouraged women to learn Latin and ancient philosophy, and was a renowned preacher, poet, and composer.
Natural Law asserts that universal moral values can be discovered, through reason, by observing the natural world.
Anselm's ontological argument is that God, the greatest being possible, must exist in reality, not just in the understanding.
Which philosopher attempted to reconcile Islam with Aristotelian philosophy.
Actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response.
The philosophical study of knowledge
A ________ knowledge gives us knowledge that is independent of sense experience.
Rationalists argue we can know about the world through unaided reason.
The view that there are innate ideas is the view that from birth ideas are present in the mind in some form.
Descartes argued, "There is one foundational argument I cannot doubt." This idea is:
I can think
What is NOT part of living an examined life?
Finding a moral role model
Ancient Greek philosophers like Pythagoras and Socrates argued
All philosophers are wise
A common argument Socrates used was
Reductio Ad Absurdum
Aristotle argued that to be virtuous is to seek the "Golden Mean" between excess and
A good in itself is a __________ good according to Aristotle.
The ethical framework that focuses on the moral quality of one's character rather than one's actions is
In logic, which of the following, known as affirming the antecedent, can be expressed as: "If P, then Q. P happened. Therefore Q happened."
You are having a discussion with someone when they state, "Either it is right or it is wrong. It is not wrong. Therefore it is right." Which argument is being used?
Mary Wollstonecraft argued the male-developed system of education for women was arranged to keep women in a state of childhood so as to make them more pleasing.
Simone de Beauvoir argued that women are understood as the Other because of how they are defined in relation to other women.
The ethical theory that grew from Feminist philosophy is called the Ethics of
According to Feminist philosophers, Feminist ethics typically prioritize which of the following three values?
Intellect, Transcendence, Trust
Feminist philosophy is so important because historically male philosophers always dismissed or ignored women philosophers.
According to John Rawls, society should be based on
The difference principle, also called the Fair and Equal Opportunity Principle, and the principle of equal liberty
John Rawls' theory of justice most closely associates justice with
The contemporary philosopher most associated with deconstruction to reveal meaning is
The contemporary philosopher associated with the use of language is
According to Nussbaum, ethical philosophy should include which of the following?
All of these
In the Hasty Generalization, a lack of sufficient information becomes the basis for a conclusion. In other words, even though you have insufficient data, you draw a conclusion anyway.
In philosophy class, we've been studying some obstacles to discovering truth.
Therefore, it is impossible to discover truth.
The greatest problem with the hasty generalization is that the conclusions they draw are usually incorrect. A conclusion without sufficient support is rarely going to be the same as a conclusion made after careful study.
The hasty conclusion fallacy occurs when sparse (though generally correct) evidence is presented toward a poorly-supported argument. Often, this occurs when someone feels strongly about a position, but has only taken a cursory glance at the evidence for (and almost no view at evidence against) her claims. Such claims are generally considered "hasty" when dissenting voices can easily summon sufficient counter-claims which the presenter has ignored.
"Have you ever noticed how awesome the pyramids are? Some of the stones used to build them weigh more than 2 tons! And despite their size, their geometry is quite precise. It's obvious that some kind of alien technology was required to build them!"
The traditional belief is that the name "red herring" had to do with training hounds to follow a scent during a fox hunt. The contemporary believe is that it was a literary device invented in 1807 by an Englishman and really had nothing to do with hunting.
Regardless, the red herring argument is also called a smoke screen and a wild goose chase. Based on those names, you likely know its purpose is to divert attention from the real argument by providing a clue that misleads the target.
Here are a few examples:
We should make academic requirements stricter for students because we are in a budget crisis and do not want funding reduced.
Notice, the second part of the sentence has nothing to do with the first. The budget crisis is a red herring because it sends the listener's attention away from the issue of stricter academic requirements.
This one is a real life example:
Question: "Which Iraqi opposition groups favor the intense bombings likely to be conducted by the Americans?"
Response: "The Iraqi opposition groups want the removal of Saddam Hussein...the fact is Saddam Hussein has carried out the wholesale slaughter of large numbers of his people..."
Notice, the response does not answer the question and instead distracts the argument with the more general topic of Hussein's regime.
The greatest problem with the red herring, like other logical fallacies we have studied is that it takes attention away from the argument and refocuses it onto something that is usually damaging to the opponent or the opposing argument.
The cherry picking fallacy occurs when particularly useful examples are chosen to prove a point, from a set of similar events that could have very well disproven the point. The difference? Is your example indicative of larger trends or not?
"Have you heard about the labor problems they're having in Springfield? I don't know why anyone would ever join a union! Unions are bad for America!"
As a socialist, Marx was convinced that the ________________ structure of a society is the dominant force that shapes one's community.
The view that God is both in every part of the universe and is also more than the universe.
Marx argued that the most advanced socialist countries would have 10 features with which of the following
All of these
Marx theorized a dialectic struggle between the proletariat who own the means of production and the bourgeoisie who do not.
In Hegel's view of the world, humanity is progressing to self-knowledge.
The philosopher most associated with Phenomenology that we study is
Kierkegaard is most concerned that _________________ is crushing the personal identity of the individual.
Which Existentialist philosopher dramatized human absurdity in "The Myth of Sisyphus"?
A major focus of Existentialism is the authenticity of the group as opposed to the individual.
Which Existentialist philosopher is associated with the quotes "existence precedes essence" and "we are condemned to be free"?
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Pity is an attempt to win support for an argument by exploiting the target's feelings of pity or guilt.
Here are some examples:
If you don't give me an A, I'll lose my scholarship.
I really need this job because my grandmother is sick.
Appeal to Fear
The Appeal to Fear is a very common argument used. A person attempts to create support for an idea by increasing fear in the target. This can be done through providing the target with misinformation or by exploiting prejudice of a competitor. It is a very popular strategy in politics and marketing.
If you don't support my plan, the enemy will win.
If you tell a lie, no one will ever believe you again.
Appeal to Flattery
The Appeal to Flattery is the use of excessive compliments to win support for a side. An individual uses flattery and praise to distract the target from the argument and attempt to weaken his or her judgment. A person who frequently uses the Appeal to Flattery would be the office suck up.
Here are a few examples:
Surely someone as smart as you can see the merits of my argument.
That was a brilliant lecture, and I'm excited to do some additional reading on it. By the way, could I get an extension on my paper deadline?
The greatest problem with fallacies that employ these Arguments from Emotion is that they, like Fallacies of Relevance, shift attention away from an argument's premises.
Instead of focusing on the facts and reasonableness of an argument, the target is misdirected to base conclusions on emotion.
When people are driven by pity, fear, and vanity, they are under a state of emotional duress and are far less likely to make decisions they would agree with later.
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