AP Psych Midterm
Terms in this set (170)
Five Waves of Psychology
Structuralism, Gestalt Psychology, Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Eclectic Psychology
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Wave of psychology believing that the whole experience can be more than the sum of its parts
Psychoanalysis / Psychdynamic Psychology (1900's)
Wave of psychology focusing on the unconscious or the hidden place in a person's mind where feelings come from. Any defense mechanism or repression is protection from real feelings. (also a perspective of eclectic psychology)
The view that psychology (a) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes - most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
Branch of psychology used today that involves picking and choosing what theories to use depending on the situation and the client. (Biopsychology, behavioral, cognitive, humanist, psychoanalytic, social-cultural, evolutionary)
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience, body chemistry, and behavior genetics) and psychological processes. how the body and brain allow for emotions, memories and senses; how genes and environment influence individuality
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin. Study how we perceive, think and solve problems
Emphasized significance of current environmental factors as opposed to childhood. historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people, the individual's potential for personal growth and being the best you can be (Maslow, Rogers) Anti-behaviorist because behaviorism was too mechanical.(also a perspective of eclectic psychology)
Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection. Behaviors are inherited to help ensure survival
1st Psychology Labratory, structuralism
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
correlation research method
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together.
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion (example of control)
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups (example of control)
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo (example of control)
experimental results caused by expectations alone (example of control)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
approximate distribution of scores expected when a sample is taken from a large population, drawn as a frequency polygon that often takes the form of a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. It has axons, dendrites, synaptic gap, myelin sheath
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between neurons
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Receive communications from other cells via distinctive receptors on their external membranes. (Branchlike parts of the neuron at the end of the soma)
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
morphine within- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
Mood. Appears to be related to arousal and sleep as well as to regulation of mood, appetite, and sensitivity to pain. (lack of --> clinical depression)
motor movement and alertness (lack --> Parkinson's) (too much --> schizophrenia)
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
the oldest part and central coe of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and agression and drives such as those for food and sex (hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, amygdala)
Plays an essential role in memory formation
a neural struture lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue, eating and pleasure center
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance / coordination
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion, fear and aggression
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; invloved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments, personality, motor cortex
controls the right side, logic activities, specific detail, language
controls left side, spatial tasks, emotional activities, picture recognition
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
twins who develop from separate eggs - they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes; 46 total in our body, 23 donated by mother (from her egg) and 23 by father (from his sperm)
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
Adapting one's current understanding to incorporate new information
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
one's sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
Piaget's four stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
In Piaget's theory, the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
In Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events (conservation, mathematical transformations)
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts (abstract logic, moral reasoning)
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age (sensorimotor birth-2)
parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by high levels of demandingness and low warmth; they impose rules and expect obedience
parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by high demandingness and high warmth; these parents explain reasons for rules and are open to negotiation (with older children)
parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by low demandingness and high warmth; they submit to their children's desires, make few rules, and use little punishment
used moral dilemmas to assess moral thinking in children; most well-known for his description of levels of morality. He believed that as moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world. (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
the first stage in Kolhberg's theory of moral development where children focus on punishment-obedience orientation and instrumental relativist orientation. It focused on self interests and avoiding punishment/ getting rewards
stage of moral development in Kohlberg's theory wherein individuals seek to gain social approval or maintain the social order (follow rules and laws to avoid disapproval) (good bo v nice girl orientation and law v order orientation)
stage of Kohlberg's moral development wherein individuals use abstract reasoning to determine right from wrong, often by citing agreed-upon rights (e.g. "the right to live") or personal ethical principles (social contract and universal ethical principle orientation)
famous for his 8-stage model of psychosocial development; neo-Freudian
trust v. mistrust
1st stage in Erikson's model; infants must learn to view the world as a predictable, safe place or face a future of guarded skepicism
autonomy v. shame / doubt
2nd stage in Erikson's model; toddlers must be able to exercise some independence or will be ashamed and uncertain of their abilities
initiative v. guilt
3rd stage in Erikson's model; preschoolers must learn to start and direct creative tasks, or they may feel guilty about asserting themselves
competence v. inferiority
4th stage in Erikson's model; children must master the skills valued by their society or feel inferior
identity v. role confusion
5th stage in Erikson's model; adolescents must develop a sense of identity or suffer lack of direction
intimacy v. isolation
6th stage in Erikson's model; young adults must form close, satisfying relationships or suffer loneliness
generativity v. stagnation
7th stage in Erikson's model; in middle age, adults must discover a sense of contributing to the world or they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity v. despair
8th stage in Erikson's model; when reflecting at the end of life, an older adult must feel a sense of satisfaction or experience despair (feelings of having wasted one's life)
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning from lack of acetylcholine
this ailment, whose symptoms includes tremors and later difficulty walking, is caused by inability to produce dopamine
minimal amount of energy required to produce any sensation; taste-1 g salt and 500 L of water, smell-one draw perfume in a three room apartment, touch-wing of the bee at 1 cm, hearing-pick of the watch 20 feet in a quiet room, vision-candle flame 30 miles on a clear night
cocktail party effect
ability to selectively attend to one voice among many
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (also called just noticeable difference or JND.)
detection of stimuli below absolute threshold
information processing guided by higher-level mental process, as when we construct perceptions drawing out our experience and expectation.
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up from the brain's integration of sensory information.
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
transparent part of the eye behind the iris; focuses light on the retina; change shape to focus on objects;-if object is closed, muscles attach to the land contract to make lens around,-if object is far away, the muscles pull to flatten the lens
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond. 120 million in each eye; respond to varying degrees of light and dark; chiefly responsible for night vision and perception of brightness
receptors cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine details and give rise to color sensation. visual receptor cells; located in retina; 8 million in each eye; works best in bright light; chiefly responsible for viewing color; greatest density in the fovea
located on retina, directly behind lens; is a depressed spot around which the eye's cones cluster. Center a visual field; images are sharpest here; contains mostly cones
place on the retina out where the ganglion cells axons leads the eye point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; no receptors fantasy rods/cones) are located here
the sense or act of hearing.
A tight membrane that vibrates when in contact with sound waves; helps to amplify the sound waves as they lose strength travelling down the auditory canal
Hammer, anvil, and stirrup
middle ear; free tiniest bones in the body; quivering of eardrum causes these bounds to hate in sequence and carry vibrations to the oval window
snail-shaped structure in the inner ear; contains fluid that vibrate; attach the oval window and basilar membrane. a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses that focus on hearing.
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
the theory that the spinal cord contains neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is open by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
sense of smell
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts; enabled by feedback from proprioceptors (which provide info about the movement of muscles, tendons, joints)
selective focusing when attention is focused on something else
not noticing something else because attention is focused elsewhere
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another senses
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to intergrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Gestalt grouping principle; we fill in "gaps" to create a full, complete object
Gestalt grouping principle; when objects uniform (in color or texture) are linked (no space exists between them) we perceive them as a single unit
Gestalt grouping principle; our tendency to perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
Gestalt grouping principle; we group nearby figures together
Gestalt grouping principle; we group similar figures together
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend of the use of two eyes.
a binocular cue for perceving depth: By comparing images from the retinals in the two eyes, the brain computes distances- the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the more the eyes strain to turn inwards to view an object, the closer the object is (note: only a factor at close ranges)
depth cues that only require input from one eye; often used in 2D art to create illusion of depth
monocular cue for depth perception; if one object partially blocks our view of another object, we perceive it as closer
light and shadow
monocular cue for depth perception; nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes...thus, given two identical objects, the dimmer one seems farther away. Also, shading produces a sense of depth consistent with our assumption that light comes from above.
monocular cue for depth perception; parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance. The more they converge, the greater the perceived distance
monocular cue for depth perception; objects that seem "fuzzier" or less clear are perceived to be farther away.
monocular cue for depth perception; we perceive objects higher in our visual field to be farther away. Explanation for why the "bottom" of a figure-ground illusion usually is interpreted as the "figure"
monocular cue for depth perception; as we move, stationary objects seem to "move" as well. Objects above a fixation point move "with" us, objects below the fixation point move "past" us.
monocular cue for depth perception; if we assume two objects are similar in size, most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image to be farther away
monocular cue for depth perception; a gradual change from course, distinct texture to fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance
Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. They are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
* - According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream.
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream.
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
NREM Stage 1
lasts only a few minutes, person quickly gains consciousness, experiences hypnagogic hallucinations, vivid sensory experiences, sometimes/usually accompanied by a myoclonic jerk that often awakes the person alpha and theta waves
NREM Stage 2
start of true sleep, sleep spindles in EEG patterns - sudden bursts of brain activity theta and start of delta waves
NREM Stage 3
considered this stage when 20% of brain activity shows delta waves, referred to as slow-wave sleep delta brain waves
NREM Stage 4
considered this stage when delta waves exceed 50% of brain activity. Person does not experience sensory stimulation - hard to wake up, referred to as slow-wave sleep delta brain waves
brain activity becomes more active, resembling that of an awakened state; approximately 85% of dreams occur during this stage. eyes move rapidly back and forth beneath eyelids beta brain waves. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, they occur during Stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings.
A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid.
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
when an organism stops paying attention to a stimuli that has been repeated many times
The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.