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Bronze Age

the period when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture used bronze.

Cultural diffusion

the idea of various cultural ideas being spread interculturally.


the written language of mesopotamia


a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family


a monarchy with an emperor as head of state

Epic of Gilgamesh

an ancient poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature.

Euphrates and tigris

the two rivers that surround mesopotamia

Fertile Crescent

refers to mesopotamia's rich soil

Hammurabi's laws

282 specific laws written by Hammurabi, the leader of the Babylonian empire, who believed that an organized code of law would justify the diverse groups of his empire.
copies were written in stone and placed throughout the empire.
The laws cover everything from family relations to crime, and portray to the modern world what the Sumerians held in terms of their beliefs and values. The code applied equally to all across the land however, those who were poor were granted different consequences than those who were rich.


egyptian system of writing


people who lived off of hunting animals and gathering vegetables. how people lived before civilizations formed


river that ran through egypt


egyptian form of paper


divine ruler of Egypt


a religion that believes in more than one god


divine tombs built by the egyptians in hope of a good afterlife


a form of government in which religion rules


to exchange goods between people


a type of statue that the mesopotamians built for their gods, simalar to pyramids

4 Noble Truths

4 beliefs on how buddhist believe one should live their life


a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment.


ruled Mauryan at its greatest peak. His army kills 100,000 of his enemies, his people give him their entire surplus, and he feels remorse. He turns to Buddhism.
Asoka posts laws that encourage religious tolerance. When he dies, there is severe social unrest.


the process of forging conquered cultures into the Chinese culture. This was done by intermarriage, farming newly colonized areas, and setting up schools to educate the idea of Confucianism.


a hindu god considered the creator of the world

Caste System

The social class of india
based off race-the lighter skinned someone was, the higher up they were
made up of: bhramin (priests), warriors, merchants/landowners, and commoners/peasents/servants

civil service examinations

a way of recruiting officials in the Ming Dynasty; very difficult examinations held at the prefecture, provincial, and capital levels


The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.


the religious and moral duties of Buddhism

eightfold path

the life that exists between earthly desires and self denial

Gupta Empire

Golden Age of India

Han Dynasty

Government made money through heavy taxation
legalism is enforced
autocratic government
confucianism brought about after warring states period


When one has reached enlightenment, or the end of the Buddhist Reincarnation cycle
'Buddhist Heaven'

Patriarchal Society

Society in which men are superior to women


re-birth after death
commonly found in Hindu and buddhism

Religious Toleration

the idea of religious freedom
brought about during the reign of Asoka


an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddhism

Silk Roads

4000 miles of roads and trading networks brought about by Qin Dynasty


a collection of prayers, magical spells, and ways to perform ceremonies.


A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world

Zhou Dynasty

feudalism; dynasty based off class system.
Bureaucracy introduced: government officials who are trained to run the government. (civil service) -
-Han often based application for a bureaucratic position off ones knowledge of Confucianism.
-system continued until 1912 A.D

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