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41 terms

Ancient Civilizations

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Bronze Age
the period when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture used bronze.
Cultural diffusion
the idea of various cultural ideas being spread interculturally.
Cuneiform
the written language of mesopotamia
Dynasty
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Empire
a monarchy with an emperor as head of state
Epic of Gilgamesh
an ancient poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature.
Euphrates and tigris
the two rivers that surround mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent
refers to mesopotamia's rich soil
Hammurabi's laws
282 specific laws written by Hammurabi, the leader of the Babylonian empire, who believed that an organized code of law would justify the diverse groups of his empire.
copies were written in stone and placed throughout the empire.
The laws cover everything from family relations to crime, and portray to the modern world what the Sumerians held in terms of their beliefs and values. The code applied equally to all across the land however, those who were poor were granted different consequences than those who were rich.
Hieroglyphic
egyptian system of writing
Hunter-gatherers
people who lived off of hunting animals and gathering vegetables. how people lived before civilizations formed
Nile
river that ran through egypt
Papyrus
egyptian form of paper
Pharaoh
divine ruler of Egypt
Polytheism
a religion that believes in more than one god
Pyramid
divine tombs built by the egyptians in hope of a good afterlife
theocracy
a form of government in which religion rules
Trade
to exchange goods between people
ziggurats
a type of statue that the mesopotamians built for their gods, simalar to pyramids
4 Noble Truths
4 beliefs on how buddhist believe one should live their life
animism
a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment.
Asoka
ruled Mauryan at its greatest peak. His army kills 100,000 of his enemies, his people give him their entire surplus, and he feels remorse. He turns to Buddhism.
Asoka posts laws that encourage religious tolerance. When he dies, there is severe social unrest.
Assimilation
the process of forging conquered cultures into the Chinese culture. This was done by intermarriage, farming newly colonized areas, and setting up schools to educate the idea of Confucianism.
Brahma
a hindu god considered the creator of the world
Caste System
The social class of india
based off race-the lighter skinned someone was, the higher up they were
made up of: bhramin (priests), warriors, merchants/landowners, and commoners/peasents/servants
civil service examinations
a way of recruiting officials in the Ming Dynasty; very difficult examinations held at the prefecture, provincial, and capital levels
confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
ETHICAL SYSTEM
Dharma
the religious and moral duties of Buddhism
eightfold path
the life that exists between earthly desires and self denial
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India
Han Dynasty
Government made money through heavy taxation
legalism is enforced
autocratic government
confucianism brought about after warring states period
Nirvana
When one has reached enlightenment, or the end of the Buddhist Reincarnation cycle
'Buddhist Heaven'
Patriarchal Society
Society in which men are superior to women
reincarnation
re-birth after death
commonly found in Hindu and buddhism
Religious Toleration
the idea of religious freedom
brought about during the reign of Asoka
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism
Silk Roads
4000 miles of roads and trading networks brought about by Qin Dynasty
Vedas
a collection of prayers, magical spells, and ways to perform ceremonies.
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Zhou Dynasty
feudalism; dynasty based off class system.
Bureaucracy introduced: government officials who are trained to run the government. (civil service) -
-Han often based application for a bureaucratic position off ones knowledge of Confucianism.
-system continued until 1912 A.D