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5 cell populations of anterior pituitary (and what they secrete)
corticotrope (ACTH), thryotrope (TSH), gonadotrope (FSH & LH), somatotrope (GH), lactotrope (PRL)
somatotrope cells (size) secrete (what secretion regulates - general)
large - GH - regulates linear growth
lactotrope cells (size) secrete (what secretion regulates - general)
large - PRL - regulates lactation
corticotrope cells (size) secrete (what secretion regulates - general)
small - ACTH - regulate adrenal function
thyrotrope cells (size) secrete (what secretion regulates - general)
large - TSH - regulate thyroid gland function
gonadotrope cells (size) secrete (what secretion regulates - general)
large - LH (regulate corpus luteum formation, estrogen/progesterone secretion & androgen secretion) & FSH (regulate growth of ovarian follicles and spermatogenesis)
GHS (name and function)
GH secretagogue - a small synthetic molecule receptor that has the same function as GRF - promotes GH secretion.
neurotransmitter system of GH secretion
catecholamines bind to either alpha or beta adrendergic receptors and modulate GHRH and somatostatin output
peripheral control factors of GH secretion
Ghrelin, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, gonadal steroids (estrogen, androgens), leptin
glucocorticoids (peripheral GH secretion control)
dual effect - first they stimulate secretion, then they can inhibit.
4 peripheral controls of GH secretion that only stimulate GH secretion
thyroid hormone, gonadal steroids, leptin, and ghrelin
indirect controls of GH secretion
glucose levels, amino acids, nonesterified fatty acids, excercise/stress
glucose (indirect control of GH)
glucose inhibits GH secretion (hypoglycemis stimulates GH secretion)
insulin-like growth factors - relate to body size (the more the IGF, the larger the body size) but does not correlate to GH secretory capacity
GH associated disease - pituitary hormone dificiency caused by diseases (ex. tumors)
GH associated disease - mutation of g-protein causes decreased GTPase activity. - constitutive AC activity
GH associated disease - GH resistence caused by GH receptor defects (worse than pituitarty dwarfism) - depressed IGF I levels
GH associated disease - excess GH early in life - symmetrical enlargement - often a pituitary tumor secreting GH
gigantism and acromegaly both caused by
tumors made up of somatotroph cells that are leading to excess GH at different times (early life/adulthood)
how GH deficiency has been treated
past - pituitarty extracts from cadavers. now - recombinant GH protein
general biological factors that affect GH secretion
sex (women more than men), age (birth-elevated for a few days, puberty - increases alot, adulthood - stable thru 5th decade, aging - after this point it starts to decrease), *sleep (most prominent GH release occurs during onset of deep sleep)
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