Period 2 terms
Terms in this set (85)
Established Maryland as a haven for Catholics. He unsuccessfully tried to reconstitute the English manorial system in the colonies and gave vast tracts of land to Catholic relatives, a policy that soon created tensions between the seaboard Catholic establishment and back-country Protestant planters
New York printer tried for seditious libel against the state's corrupt Royal Governor. His acquittal set an important precedent for freedom of the press.
married pocahontas, powhattans favorite daughter, after the colonists captured her and held her in James town and indoctrinated her. She accepted Christian conversion and powhatan made peace with the colonists
New England minister whose fiery sermons helped touch off the 1st Great Awakening (1730s-1740s). He emphasized human helplessness and depravity and touted that salvation could be attained through God's grace alone
old and new lights
Old and New Lights
The "Old Lights" were those who defended the existed order while the "New Lights" were those who embraced the new piety. Due to the great awakening New England became divided into these two fiercely hostile camps.
English preacher whose rousing, emotionally charged sermons throughout the American colonies drew vast audiences and sparked a wave of religious conversion known as the 1st Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)
Samuel de Champlain
founded quebec for the french in 1608, as a small outpost of a few dozen men, depended on Indian good will to survive and prosper
protests against the Dominion of New England
-After the Glorious rev a boston mob rose against the Dominion and Sir Edmund Andros was forced to flee
Codes that defined the slaves' legal status and masters perrogatives. The Barbados slave code of 1661 gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves. They were put in place to control the large and potentially restive population of slaves.
The actual ownership of a human. Indian slaves became a major export in Carolina and over time more and more African slaves arrived in the colonies to work on the plantations.
Massachusetts general court
A small number of shareholders in the company who held the power bestowed upon them by the original charter of 1629. this would expand into the General Court we know today which meets at Beacon Hill in Massachusetts
A joint stock company founded in London which received a charter for a settlement in the New World from King James I. They were in search of gold as well as a passage to the Indians.
the mistaken belief that the conquistadors brought only misery to the New World, when in fact they also laid the foundations for nations
House of Burgesses
In 1619 the London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly known as the House of Burgesses. This assemblage was the first of many miniature parliments in America.
Disliked Dutch governor of New Netherlands, leads to Dutch surrender to the English. Prohibits sale of guns and alcohol to indians. Former army person.
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
30-time governor of Plymouth, very popular leader; distributed land among settlers to encourage farming
4-7 years of service in exchange for passage across the Atlantic to North America.
The Calvinist doctrine that God has foreordained some people to be saved and some to be damned.
Ex. "Good works could not save those whom 'predestination' had marked for the infernal fires."
• The Mayflower Compact is often cited as the first example of self-government in the Americas. The Pilgrims, having arrived at a harbor far north of the land that was rightfully theirs, signed the Mayflower Compact to establish a "civil body politic" under the sovereignty of James I.
The Pilgrims were a group of English Separatists who had originally sought refuge in the Netherlands. In 1620, they sailed to Plymouth in the Mayflower and established the colony of Plymouth Plantation.
A group arose in England in the mid-1600s, were called Quakers; name derived from when they supposedly quaked when under deep religious emotion; were originally known as the Religious Society of Friends;
Quakers were offensive to authorities both religious and civil; refused to support the established Church of England w/ taxes; built simple meetinghouses without a paid clergy; believed were all children in the sight of God; addressed people with thee's and thou's; would take no oaths because Jesus had condemned "Swear not at all"
Abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service; were a simple devoted democratic people
The teachings and doctrine of John Calvin, a leader in the Protestant reformation. Calvinism is unique in its rejection of consubstantiation, the Eucharist and in its doctrine of predestination, the belief that no actions taken during a persons life would effect their salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on Calvinist doctrine.
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
The great Awakening
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
was established in 1636 by vote of Massachusetts Bay Colony and is the oldest institution of higher learning in the US and it was created in order to train Puritan ministers.
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
Pueblo Indians rose up against Spanish missionaries and settlers; established a short-lived confederacy
the ideology of governing the nation as a republic, where the head of state is not appointed through hereditary means, but usually through an election , A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Sir Walter Raleigh
• Sir Walter Raleigh was an English explorer who established England's first American colony in 1585. This settlement was off the coast of North Carolina, on Roanoke Island.
bt. August and October 1451 - May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer who was instrumental in Spanish colonization of the Americas. Though not the first to reach the Americas from Europe (the Vikings had reached Canada many years earlier, led by Leif Ericsson), Columbus' voyages led to general European awareness of the hemisphere and the successful establishment of European cultures in the New World.
(1485-December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who initiated the conquest of the Aztec Empire on behalf of Charles V, king of Castile and Holy Roman Emperor, in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
(1580-June 21, 1631) was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between 1607 and 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
The first conflict between De La Warr and the Powhatan Confederacy, ended in a peace settlement that included the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. The Second was initiated by the Natives. The peace treaty banished the Confederacy from their Chesapeake lands and separated them permanently from white settlements.
Royal document granting a specified group the right to form a colony and guaranteeing settlers their rights as English citiznes
british law and custom where the firstborn son inherits the family's entire estate. it led many younger sons of gentry to seek their fortunes in exploration and colonization
dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England occurred in the time period of the 1670's & 1680's. King James II attempts to consolidate all of the New England colonies (that includes: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire) into one large colony. By doing so, he's taking away the rights of the people in those colonies, because they no longer have much say in their government. He wants to expand it eventually to include New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey and make them under one rule. King James II tries to tighten his control over the colonies and curve the rights of the people. The significance of this is that the Glorious Revolution puts the end to the Dominion of New England and restores the rights of the people.
Law of Coveture
Property law in the 1700's that states that women are legally property of fathers until 21 or marriage, and then she's the property of her husband. Despite Jefferson's ideals of natural equality, this property law illustrates the lack of political equality for anyone who didn't hold property. The only people who could legally vote was an economically independent citizen (only 10% of the nation
1676, VA: Bacon objected Governor Berkeley's inability to Virginians against Native attacks. Two raids by Bacon on Natives. Bacon set fire to Jamestown. Berkeley ended rebellion. Turn of the colonies away from indentured servitude to slavery
Maryland act of Toleration
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them.
Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"
king Philip's war
war between the native americans and the english in new england
colonists had completely surround land of Wampanoags
metacomet didn't like impact of English culture and Christianity on his tribe
- waged for 14 months
- colonists defeated metacomet
1 out of every 10 adult white males in Massachusetts were captured or killed
Massachusetts puritan who defended religious laws
wrote The Bloody Tenet Washed and Made White
Milk of Babes - first published book in the New World for children
Massachusetts governor who believed only the spiritual elect should have any power.
a religious group that wanted to be completely separate from the Church of England
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
"of conneticut" This was created in 1639 in the newly founded colony on the Conneticut river. This colony was created by Reverend Thomas Hooker in the Hartford area of Conneticut. This document was essentialy a modern Constitution which created a democratic government controlled by "substantical" citizens. Important features in this document were later adopted into the colonial charter and the state Constitution in Conneticut.
method of land distribution in colonial Virginia, based on population
dutch West Inda Company
Dutch investment company formed in 1621 with outposts in North America & Africa and a sugar industry in Brazil
Bloodless transfer of power to William and Mary of England in 1688
ship that brought the Pilgrims to America
102 passengers boarded this ship in 1620 that headed for the colonies - 35 were Pilgrims
The ship that carried the Pilgrims to Plymouth Colony.
Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas
wanted to purify the Church of England
Land in Massachusetts Bay in 1630 seeking religious freedom
Massachusetts bay company
Company formed by the Puritans when sailing to North America
Joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James
An assembly of people in a New England town that made laws and elected leaders.
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. All coined bread basket colonies because of their heavy and consistent export of grains.
iroquois vs algonkian war of extermination
1698: ended in trade alliance between French and Iroquois tribe
Iroquois/Huron fight to be primary trading partners with French
process of converting anything to english norms
The theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
Social contract theory
Robert de la Salle
French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
daughter of Powhatan; saved John Smith from his captors; her marriage to John Rolfe sealed peace agreement of First Anglo-Powhatan War
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
Companies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the king
Salem witch trials
. series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693.
Part of the Triangle Trade. Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco. Slave codes. Made blacks and their children property of white masters for life.
First African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.
North Carolina Piedmont uprising against colonial governor William Tryon
Political events and outcomes that surrounded the events of the Regulators
Movement led by the Scots-Irish because they didn't want Eastern colonies' influence.
an additional tax revolt before revolution, North Carolina
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
An English real estate entrepreneur, he was giving a large piece of the American land from James II of England. He was a early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, he was also one of the few colonies to have good relations with the Indians, making serveral successful treaties
-also a quacker
The man who started Bacons rebellion. He was a colonist from Virginia. He was appointed to the council of governor. He later died of dysentery, an inflamitory distorder of the intestine
• Passed under the mercantilist system, the Navigation Acts (1651-1673) regulated trade in order to benefit the British economy. The acts restricted trade between England and its colonies to English or colonial ships, required certain colonial goods to pass through England before export, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned colonial competition in large-scale manufacturing.
Chief Pontiac (Ottawa) led several tribes from The Great Lakes area in a war aainst the British, with whom the were dissatisfied for post French/Indian War Policies. Wanted to drive them out of ohio country
Ben Franklin came up with the idea of self rule.
Attempted to establish political unity in June 1754
wanted treaty with Iroquois, intercolonial cooperation
A group of representatives that met to discuss how to fight France.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Protestant work ethic
the idea that hard work and material success are signs of God's favour.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including North America.
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol or working on Sundays
African-American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa
revocation of Massachusetts' charter
Revoking of Mass. Charter by King George II due to the colonists refusal to obey by the Navigation Acts leading to anti-British feeling in the New England region.
1637 Conflict between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. This war saw the elimination of the Pequot in New England, and is exemplary of the Puritan use of genocide towards Native Americans.
a period from 1607-1763 in which England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years.
Act that happened in 1699 that prohibited the exportation of colonial woolen cloth, but not its manufacture for local sale