25 terms

DIGESTION VOCABULARY

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Nutrient
A substance in food that provides the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes
Calorie
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
Carbohydrate- simple sugars (glucose)
An energy rich compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Protein- amino acids
Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Fats- lipids
Energy- containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
Digestion
The process by which the body breaks down food into smaller nutrient molecules
Absorbtion
The process by which nutrients pass from the digestive system into the blood
Saliva
The fluid released when the mouth waters. Very important in both mechanical and chemical digestion
Enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a living thing
Epiglottis
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents the food from entering the lungs.
Esophagus
A muscular tube that connects mouth to stomach
Mucus
A thick and slippery substance produced by the body
Peristalsis
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
Stomach
A J- shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen
small intestine
The part in the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion takes place
Liver
The body's largest organ; it produces bile, breaks down medicines, and helps eliminate nitrogen from the body
Bile
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles
Galbladder
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver
Pancreas
A triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the small intestine
Villi
Tiny finger shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed
Large intestine
The last section of the digestive system , where water is absorbed into the blood and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
Chemical digestion
involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells. (With enzymes)
Mechanical digestion
involves physically breaking the food into smaller pieces. (with your teeth)
Hydrolysis
another word for digesting/ breaking down
simple sugars (glucose)
the main source of energy for your body's cells