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FINAL SCI 1102: Chapter 18
Terms in this set (57)
an area's long-term atmospheric condition. Temperature, moisture content, wind, precipitation, etc.
conditions at localized sites over hours or days.
Global Climate Change
describes trends and variations in Earth's climate. Temperature, precipitation, storm frequency & intensity.
an increase in Earth's average temperature. Only one aspect of global climate change; may drive other components.
The rapid climatic changes taking place now are due to human activity:
fossil fuels, combustion, and deforestation.
without it, the Earth would be dark and frozen. Also supplies most of our planet's energy.
without it, the Earth's temperature would be much colder. Earth's atmosphere, clouds, land, ice, and water absorb 70% of incoming solar radiation.
shape climate by storing and transporting heat and moisture.
cycles in the way our planet spins, tilts, and moves through space.
As Earth's surface absorbs _______ radiation, the surface increases in temperature and emits _______ radiation.
Atmospheric gases that absorb infrared radiation.
some energy travels back downward, warming the atmosphere and planet's surface.
the relative ability of one molecule of a given greenhouse gas to contribute to warming.
What caused levels of CO2 to increase?
Fossil fuel use and deforestation release carbon dioxide.
fossil fuel deposits, livestock, landfills, and crops such as rice.
feedlots, chemical manufacturing plants, auto emissions, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
risen 36% due to photochemical smog.
are declining due to the Montreal Protocol.
the most abundant greenhouse gas and contributes most to the greenhouse effect.
microscopic droplets and particles that have either a warming or cooling effect.
or black carbon aerosols, cause warming by absorbing solar energy.
Sulfate aerosols produced by fossil fuel combustion may slow _______ warming, at least in the short term.
Volcanic eruptions reduce sunlight reaching the earth and ______ the Earth.
the amount of change in energy that a given factor causes.
refers to the reflectivity of a surface.
Positive forcing ______ the surface; negative forcing ______ it.
drives temperature change on Earth's surface.
the ocean holds 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and absorbs it from the atmosphere.
Warmer oceans absorb less CO2 because gases are less soluble in warmer water - a ________ feedback effect that accelerates warming.
ocean water exchanges tremendous amounts of heat with the atmosphere, and ocean currents move energy from place to place.
El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO)
a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific.
Cold surface waters extend far westward in the equatorial Pacific and weather patterns are affected in opposite ways.
a worldwide current system in which warmer, fresher water moves along the surface; and colder, saltier water moves deep beneath the surface.
North American Deep Water (NADW)
the deep portion of the thermohaline circulation, consisting of dense, cool water that sinks.
types of indirect evidence that serve as substitutes for direct measurements.
Trapped _______ in ice cores show: atmospheric composition, greenhouse gas concentration, temperature trends, snowfall, solar activity, and frequency of fires.
Cores in sediment beds ________ pollen grains and other plant remnants.
indicate age ,wetness of the season, droughts, and seasonal growth.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
An international panel of scientists and government officials established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorlogical Organization.
Fourth Assessment Report (2007)
Consensus of scientific climate research from around
the world. Summarizes thousands of studies. It documents observed trends in surface temperature, precipitation patterns, snow and ice cover, sea levels, storm intensity etc.
temporary, localized rise in sea level. Caused by the high tides and winds of storms.
pursue actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to lessen severity of future climate change. Renewable energy sources, farm practices to protect soil integrity, preventing deforestation.
accept climate change is happening and pursue strategies to minimize its impacts on us. Criticized as sidestepping.
technologies or approaches that remove CO2 from power plant emissions.
storing carbon somewhere (underground?) where it will not seep out.
Transportation is the ___ largest source of U.S. greenhouse gases.
a portfolio of strategies, each one feasible in itself, that could stabilize CO2 emissions.
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC)
outlines a plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 through a voluntary, nation-by-nation approach.
signatory nations must reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels below those of 1990.
The Copenhagen conference
The conference in 2009 tried to design a successor treaty to the Kyoto Protocol.
Global Warming Solutions Act
California signed to cut emissions 25% by 2020.
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
(RGGI) in 2007
Set up a cap-and-trade program.
The Chicago Climate Change is the world's first _________ trading program for greenhouse gas reduction.
The world's largest ____________ program is the European Union Emission Trading Scheme.
cap and trade
Voluntary payment to another entity intended to enable that entity to reduce the greenhouse emissions that one is unable or unwilling to reduce oneself.
where no net carbon is emitted.
expresses the amount of carbon we are responsible for emitting.
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