Chapter 7/20: Controls of Microbial Growth
Term for: Destroys all forms of microbial life including endospores.
Name for type of chemical that destroys vegetative pathogens on inanimate, non-living, objects only.
Name for type of chemical that destroys vegetative microbes on living tissues.
Suffix that means "To kill"
Suffix that means "Inhibits"
Toxic to only particular cell types. - Like antibiotics that target the 70S ribosomes of prokaryotes & have no effect on 80 ribosomes of humans.
Define Selective Toxicity & give an example.
Term for antibiotics that affect only a select group of bacteria.
Term for antibiotics that affect a large number of bacteria groups.
Synergism. Example - SXT
Term for: A combination of drugs that produces a greater overall effect than either would alone.
Can you list an example antibitiotic?
MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)
Term for: Lowest dilution of antibiotic needed to stop microbial growth.
Competitive Inhibition. Target: PABA in the process of making Folic Acid
Term for when drugs mimic substrates and bind to enzymes preventing the real substrate from binding.
Name the substrate/product that antibiotics target in prokaryotes
An enzyme relaxes tightly wound chromosomal DNA so it can be read & is replicated.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes B-lactam ring on NATURAL Penicillins, making them ineffective.
Inhibit lipid synthesis in cell membranes.
How do Phenols work to inhibit microbial growth?
Iodine - Water backpacking. Clorine - pools & bleach. Bromine - pools.
Name a halogen & its use as a disinfectant
Term for when high energy waves with short wavelengths are used to control microbes.
Term for when UVwaves are used to control microbes..
Type of enzyme that cuts thymine dimer cross-links, returning DNA to normal.
Type of control done by using chemicals, boiling, or applying UV radiation.
Type of control done by using antibiotics and disinfectants.
Bacteriostatic - need further testing
Does disk diffusion testing measure bacteriostatic or bactericidal? Explain.
Penicillin- only affects cell wall of GP
Give an example of a narrow spectrum antibiotic & it's target
Ribosomes/protein synthesis, Folic Acid/ SXT, DNA gyrase
Define broad spectrum antibiotic and give an example target
Kill normal flora as well as pathogen.
Opportunistic yeast infection
What is a danger of using broad spectrum antibiotics?
MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration)
Term for lowest dilution needed to kill a specific infectious microbe.
Iodine - Surgical skin prep
Name a halogen & it's use as an antiseptic.
At which of the following concentrations is alcohol not effective as a disinfectant; 70%, 80%, 90% or 100%?
Specific type of cellular damage caused by UV radiation.
Type of enzyme/process that excises the thymine dimer from the DNA
Dark repair only
What type of UV Radiation damage repair can occur in a dark cupboard?
Both Dark & Light (Photolyase) Repair
What type of UV Radiation damage repair can occur in the normal light of a room?
Name of enzyme that "ties" new nucleotides into DNA.
Vary - ribosomes, Folic Acid, Cell wall, DNA gyrase (this one is not as commonly used)
Name a prokarotic component that antibiotics commonly target.
Describe how that targeted component is different from the same component in human cells.
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