34 terms

Chapter 7/20: Controls of Microbial Growth

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Terms in this set (...)

Sterlization
Term for: Destroys all forms of microbial life including endospores.
Disinfectant
Name for type of chemical that destroys vegetative pathogens on inanimate, non-living, objects only.
Antiseptic
Name for type of chemical that destroys vegetative microbes on living tissues.
-cide/-cidal
Suffix that means "To kill"
-stat/-static/-stasis
Suffix that means "Inhibits"
Toxic to only particular cell types. - Like antibiotics that target the 70S ribosomes of prokaryotes & have no effect on 80 ribosomes of humans.
Define Selective Toxicity & give an example.
Narrow Spectrum
Term for antibiotics that affect only a select group of bacteria.
Broad Spectrum
Term for antibiotics that affect a large number of bacteria groups.
Synergism. Example - SXT
Term for: A combination of drugs that produces a greater overall effect than either would alone.

Can you list an example antibitiotic?
MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)
Term for: Lowest dilution of antibiotic needed to stop microbial growth.
Competitive Inhibition. Target: PABA in the process of making Folic Acid
Term for when drugs mimic substrates and bind to enzymes preventing the real substrate from binding.

Name the substrate/product that antibiotics target in prokaryotes
DNA Gyrase
An enzyme relaxes tightly wound chromosomal DNA so it can be read & is replicated.
Penicillinase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes B-lactam ring on NATURAL Penicillins, making them ineffective.
Inhibit lipid synthesis in cell membranes.
How do Phenols work to inhibit microbial growth?
Iodine - Water backpacking. Clorine - pools & bleach. Bromine - pools.
Name a halogen & its use as a disinfectant
Lyophilization
Freeze Drying
Ionizing Radiation
Term for when high energy waves with short wavelengths are used to control microbes.
Non-ionizing Radiation
Term for when UVwaves are used to control microbes..
Photolyases
Type of enzyme that cuts thymine dimer cross-links, returning DNA to normal.
Physical Control
Type of control done by using chemicals, boiling, or applying UV radiation.
Chemical Control
Type of control done by using antibiotics and disinfectants.
Bacteriostatic - need further testing
Does disk diffusion testing measure bacteriostatic or bactericidal? Explain.
Penicillin- only affects cell wall of GP
Give an example of a narrow spectrum antibiotic & it's target
Ribosomes/protein synthesis, Folic Acid/ SXT, DNA gyrase
Define broad spectrum antibiotic and give an example target
Kill normal flora as well as pathogen.
Opportunistic yeast infection
What is a danger of using broad spectrum antibiotics?
MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration)
Term for lowest dilution needed to kill a specific infectious microbe.
Iodine - Surgical skin prep
Name a halogen & it's use as an antiseptic.
100%
At which of the following concentrations is alcohol not effective as a disinfectant; 70%, 80%, 90% or 100%?
Thymine dymers
Specific type of cellular damage caused by UV radiation.
Dark Repair
Type of enzyme/process that excises the thymine dimer from the DNA
Dark repair only
What type of UV Radiation damage repair can occur in a dark cupboard?
Both Dark & Light (Photolyase) Repair
What type of UV Radiation damage repair can occur in the normal light of a room?
DNA ligase
Name of enzyme that "ties" new nucleotides into DNA.
Vary - ribosomes, Folic Acid, Cell wall, DNA gyrase (this one is not as commonly used)
Name a prokarotic component that antibiotics commonly target.

Describe how that targeted component is different from the same component in human cells.