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The Greek Civilization

Ancient Greek history and culture vocab
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Minoan civilization
a civilization that existed on the mediterranean island of Crete, with its center in Knossos (ca. 2000 BC - 1400 BC)
Dorians
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Mycenaean civilization
a greek civilization that took off where the Minoans left off (possibly conquered the Minoans), militaristic, expanded trade through sea raids, piracy, colonization - fought Troy in Trojan war, written about in Iliad (ca. 1400-1200 BC)
Greek Dark Ages
Period in Greek history from 1150-750 BC. New intruders came to the land, neglected older palaces, etc. Decline of Mycenaeans. Most of what we know about this period comes from Homer's Odyssey and Iliad.
Iliad
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Zeus
(Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology
Athena
(Greek mythology) goddess of wisdom and useful arts and prudent warfare
anthropomorphic
attributing human characteristics or qualities to objects, animals, or gods
Olympiad
one of the 4-year intervals between Olympic Games
polis
City-state
monarchy
rule by a single person
oligarchy
rule by few
tyranny
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator - often tried to champion the cause of the common people
democracy
rule by the people
Helots
slaves in Sparta
Peloponnesian League
an alliance of Greek city-states on the Peloponnesus, led by Sparta
Solon
leader of Athens (ca. 590 BC) under whom the city-state took some of its first steps toward democracy, forbade enslavement of debtors, allowed greater representation in the government
Darius I
Persian king who attacked Greece at Marathon in 490 BC where the Persian forces were defeated by a surprise attack by the Greeks
Xerxes
Persian king who renewed the struggle against the Athenians that his father had begun. 480 BC Crossed the Hellespont with a bridge made of boats, defeated at the battle of Salamis when the Athenians lured the Persians into fighting by sea in a narrow strait next to Salamis island.
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Peloponnesian War
A Greek civil war between Athens and her allies and Sparta and her allies (5th century B.C.) Sparta emerged victorious and became the most powerful city-state in Greece
Philip II
ambitious King of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great, assasinated in 336 before he could completely unify the Greeks
Darius III
Persian king who was defeated by Alexander the Great
Hellenic
Greek
Hellenistic
Greek-like
humanities
Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture (ie. philosophy, history, literature)
philosophers
"Lovers of wisdom", a thinker who uses logic and reason
Thales
Father of Philosophy, thought that the original substance of all things is water
Socrates
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others.
Plato
Most famous pupil of Socrates, founded Academy for the study of philosophy and science outside of Athens, thought that things in earth are reflections of their eternal counterparts
anarchy
the breakdown of government and order
Aristotle
most famous pupil of Plato, studied at Plato's Academy, thought that reality was in the world not outside it - developed study of all parts of the world (science) and developed system of logic, taught Alexander the Great
syllogism
a three-step logical process of thinking: (1) All Greeks are human, (2) Aristotle is a Greek, (3) Therefore, Aristotle is a human
Epicurus
Hellenistic philosopher that believed happiness and pleasure could be gained by avoiding pain and fear, founder of the Epicurean school of philosophy
Zeno
Hellenistic philosopher that taught that the affairs of men and the universe were ordered by fixed laws. Man must accept his fate and live a life of duty and self-control. Founder of the Stoic school of philosophy
Pythagoras
a philosopher and mathematician of the sixth century BC - concluded that the universe could be explained by math - famous for his theorem: a^2 + b^2 = c^2
Hippocrates
famed physician of the Golden Age, known as the father of medicine
Euclid
Father of Geometry, wrote Elements which was THE textbook on Geometry for centuries and is still the basis of geometry textbooks today
Eratosthenes
Father of Geography, Greek astronomer and geographer - determined the circumference of the globe using Euclid's geometry
Herodotus
Father of History, wrote history of Persian Wars
Thucydides
Historian, contemporary of Herodotus, wrote history of Peloponnesian Wars, considered to be more objective in his history than Herodotus
Sophocles
Famous Greek dramatist who wrote many tragedies
Aristophanes
Famous Greek dramatist who wrote many comedies
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena