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Anatomy lectures and case studies
Terms in this set (197)
What 4 cranial nerves carry presynaptic parasympathetic fibers (GVE)?
CN 3,7, 9, 10
What are the 4 cranial parasympathetic ganglia?
Ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion, and otic ganglion.
Why is the trigeminal nerve important for the ganglia?
It serves as a route for postganglionic parasympathetics to hitch a ride to reach an effector.
If the sphincter pupillae muscle contracts, does the eye dilate or constrict?
If the ciliary muscle in the eye contracts, will this allow for near vision or far vision?
near vision. (accommodation)
Which facial nerve supplies the lacrimal glands, mucosal glands, submandibular glands and sublingual glands?
Which cranial nerve supplies the parasympathetic pathways to the parotid gland?
What spinal segments does the sympathetic outflow occur?
Where will the presynpatic sympathetic fibers from T1-L2 synapse at?
The superior cervical ganglion (the highest of the paravertebral/chain ganglion)
What does postsynaptic sympathetics travel around arterial within what to reach effectors?
The periarterial plexus.
How can we test for the olfactory nerve deficit?
Test by smelling strong oils, like peppermint
Does the medial visual field go onto the ipsilateral or contralateral optic tract?
A lesion in the optic nerve would cause what kind of visual field defect?
A lesion at the optic chiasm would cause what kind of visual field defect?
A lesion at the right lateral geniculate nucleus would cause what kind of visual field defect?
Loss of vision laterally in left eye and medially in right eye.
In what sinus can the oculomotor nerve be compressed?
What test can be done for the oculomotor nerve?
Pupillary test, tests for function of sphincter pupillae. Look for ptosis (eyelid drop)
What test can be done to test for the trigeminal nerve?
Corneal reflex test, touch cotton wisp to cornea while patient looks up and out.
If the patient has a facial nerve lesion, would they lose taste to the anterior 2/3 or posterior 1/3 of tongue?
What is ansomnia?
The loss of smell
What is tinnitus?
Ringing or buzzing of ears
While doing the Weber test, the patient says the sound is louder on one side, does this indicate conductive or sensorineural loss?
While doing the Rinne test, the patient says the bone conduction of sound is better than air conduction, would this indicate conductive or sensorineural loss?
While doing the Rinne test, the patient says the air conduction of sound is better than air conduction, would this indicate conductive or sensorineural loss?
What portion of the tongue does the glossopharyngeal nerve supply taste to?
A tumor in the jugular foramen would affect which cranial nerve?
What is dysphagia?
Difficulty in swallowing
What is aphonia?
Loss of voice, caused by bilateral paralysis of vocal cords
A patient has a lesion to the right vagus nerve, would their uvula deviate ipsilateral or contralateral?
contralateral. (the unaffected side)
The Accessory Nerve (CN XI) supplies motor function to which two muscles?
SCM and Trapezius
When a patient sticks out their tongue it deviates to the right, would this indicate a lesion to the right or left hypoglossal nerve?
Right. (To the affected side)
With the exception of the inferior oblique, where do the EOM originate?
The posterior aspect of orbital cavity
What a yoke muscles?
Paired EOm that exist on contralateral sides but work together to direct gaze onto an object
To test the function of the patients EOM, would the patient need to medially or laterally rotate their eye to test the Superior and Inferior rectus muscles?
To test the function of the patients EOM, would the patient need to medially or laterally rotate their eye to test the Inferior Oblique and Superior Oblique muscles?
What is convergence?
When the finger is in the midline and both medial rectus muscles are contracting.
What is opthalmoplegia?
The inability to move eye
where does the lymph from the tonsils drain?
Is the right or left brachiocephalic vein shorter and more vertical?
The Right Brachiocephalic vein
The internal jugular vein is a continuation of what?
Where does the lymph from the tongue drain?
The Internal Jugular vein joins what vein to become the brachiocephalic vein?
The Subclavian vein
Which sinus drains the brain?
Which sinus drains the face?
Inferior petrosal sinus
What is the venous angle associated with?
Lung apex and cervical pleura
What is steatorrhea?
Presence of excess fat in feces
What does it mean to be transmural?
Extending through, or affecting, the entire thickness of the wall of an organ or cavity
The inferior aspect of the IJV is deep to what?
The Lesser Supraclavicular Fossa (Sedillot's Triangle)
Which IJV is commonly used for internal jugular vein catheterization?
What is chylothorax? And how can it occur?
Accumulation of lymph in the pleural cavity. If there is damage to thoracic duct. (inserting catheter into left IJV)
What are the 3 common sites for catheterization?
IJV, femoral vein and subclavian vein.
For IJV catheterization, what position is the patient put in?
The Trendelenburg position. (head 10-15 degrees lower than legs, to distend IJV and decrease risk of air embolism. Head slightly turned left, needle inserted at 30-45 degree angle.)
What is diaphoresis?
What is exopthalmos?
Protrusion of the eye (hyperthyroidism)
From what vertebral levels is the thyroid gland present?
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in the size of a tissue/organ due to increased cell #.
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in size of a tissue/organ due to increased cell size, without increased cell #
Is Trioodothyronine [T3] known as the "storage hormone" or energy hormone?
Which is more potent, T3 or T4?
Which is more predominant T3 or T4?
Which cells produce T3 and T4?
Thyroid follicle cells
When the thyroid gland is inactive, are the follicles small or large?
Large follicles, with abundant colloid, epithelial cells are flat
The thyroid gland is surrounded by what fascia?
The pretracheal fascia.
What does the superior thyroid artery branch off of?
The external carotid a.
What does the inferior thyroid artery branch off of?
The thyrocervical trunk from the subclavian.
The pituitary gland secretes what hormone that controls the thyroid?
Where do the inferior thyroid veins drain into?
Left brachiocephalic vein
Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?
Internal jugular vein
This artery in the thyroid is only present 10% of the time.
What arteries supply the parathyroid glands?
Inferior thyroid arteries
The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of what CN?
The left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes below what structure?
Arch of the aorta
The right laryngeal nerve passes ascends through what?
Is Graves disease a type of primary or secondary hyperthyroidism?
What is primary hyperthyroidism?
An excess production of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland
What is secondary hyperthyroidism?
An excess production of thyroid releasing hormones from the hypothalamus or TSH from the pituitary.
What is acropachy?
Clubbing of fingers and/or toes caused by edema and periosteal changes.
What is torticollis?
Spasmatic contraction of neck muscles
What fascia layer bounds the retropharyngeal space?
Deep cervical fascia
Space posterior to pharynx...?
Space posterior to esophagus...?
The pharyngeal tonsil opens into the roof of which part of the pharynx?
The auditory tube opens into which part of the pharynx?
The palatine tonsils are in which part of the pharynx?
The lingual tonsils are in which part of the pharynx?
The pharynx is supplied by the branches of what artery?
The external carotid a.
The nasopharynx is supplied by which cranial nerve? Be specifc.
The oropharynx is supplied by which cranial nerve?
The laryngopharynx is supplied by which cranial nerve?
The pharynx receives somatic and visceral innervation primarily from what?
The superior 1/3 of the esophagus is supplied by which nerve?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
The inferior 2/3 of the esophagus is supplied by which nerve?
What are the palatine tonsils found between?
Between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches
This nerve provides sensation to the vocal folds....
Inferior laryngeal nerve
The cricothyroid muscle is supplied by which nerve?
External branch of Superior laryngeal nerve
What is dyspnea?
What is odynophagia?
Pain on swallowing
The "sniffing position", is indicative of what problem?
What is presyncope?
Feeling faint or lightheaded
The left subclavian is a direct branch off what artery?
The arch of the aorta
The right subclavian is a branch off what artery?
At what vertebral level does the common carotid artery bifurcate?
What is spontaneous carotid artery dissection?
An oblique tear between laminae of the vessel wall. Allows blood between layers and can cause hematoma/aneurysm
What is Amaurosis fugax?
Sudden, transient unilateral vision loss. (spontaneous carotid artery dissection)
The Right and Left vertebral artery unite to form what artery?
The external carotid artery supplies what?
Head and neck
The internal carotid artery supplies what?
What is the only moveable bone of the skull?
What bones does the squamous suture join?
parietal and temporal
What does the coronal suture join?
Frontal and parietal bones
What does the occipital suture join?
Parietal and occipital bones
Importance of the pterion?
Where the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones articulate. Site of epidural hematoma.
What are the layers of the Dura Mater?
1. Periosteal-adhere to inner skull
2. Meningeal- in contact with arachnoid mater
Where does an epidural hematoma occur?
Between the periosteal layer and the skull
Where does a subdural hematoma occur?
Between the dura and arachnoid mater
Where does the CSF lie within the brain?
The subarachnoid space
The middle meningeal artery enters the cranial cavity through what?
What nerve does the middle meningeal artery pass between?
What are the 5 "P" signs of arterial occlusion?
1. Pain 2. Pallor 3. Paresthesia 4. Paralysis 5. Pulselessness
What can you compress the femoral artery between/on?
The midpoint of the inguinal ligament and on superior ramus of the pubis
What passes through the Tarsal tunnel?
Tom, Dick ANd Harry
Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, Posterior Tibial Artery, Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallucis Longus
What are the pulse points of the lower limb?
1. Dorsalis pedis 2. Posterior tibial artery 3. Femoral artery 4. Popliteal artery
Between what can you palpate the dorsalis pedis?
Extensor hallucis longus and Extensor digitorum longus to 2nd toe.
What nerves run through the greater sciatic foramen?
Sciatic nerve, superior and inferior gluteal nerve.
The femoral nerve supplies what compartment of the thigh?
The obturator nerve supplies what compartment of the thigh?
The tibial nerve supplies what compartment of the leg?
The superficial branch of the common fibular nerve supplies what compartment of the leg?
The deep branch of the common fibular nerve supplies what compartment of the leg?
Which muscle is the prime mover for hip extension?
Which two muscles serve as pelvic stabilizers?
Gluteus minimus and gluteus medius
The sciatic nerve will become what 3 nerves?
Tibial nerve, deep fibular nerve, and superificial fibular nerve
The gluteus maximus is supplied by what nerve?
Inferior gluteal nerve
The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are supplied by what nerve?
Superior gluteal nerve
What is a fasciotomy? And when is it used?
An incision deep fascia to relieve pressure. Used to relieve compartment syndrome.
The patellar ligament tendon reflex tests what myotome?
L3 and L4
The calcaneal tendon reflex tests what myotome?
S1 and S2
What does the trendelenburg's sign tell you?
The patient has weak or paralyzed pelvic stabilizers
In what quadrant of the gluteal region is safe for injections?
Lateral upper quadrant
In a hip dislocation, which ligament is most likely to be torn?
A tightened XXXX muscle will cause anterior pelvic tilt?
Where does a femoral hernia occur in relation to the inguinal ligament?
Inferior to inguinal ligament.
Which compartment is the femoral artery in?
Which compartment is the femoral vein in?
Which compartment are the deep inguinal lymph nodes (lymphatics)
In what compartment will a femoral hernia occur? Also describe what it will pass through.
It occurs in the medial compartment. Passes through femoral canal then femoral ring.
If the hamstring muscle is avulsed proximally, what structure will it be torn from?
What muscles does the IT band attach to?
Tensor fasciae latae and upper fibers of gluteus maximus
Which muscles come together to form the calcaneal tendon?
Soleus and calcaneus
Tarsal tunnel syndrome affects which nerve?
Plantar fasciitis is the irritation of what structure?
The straining and inflammation of the Plantar aponeurosis
The anterior draw test for the ankle will test for which torn ligament?
The talar-tilt sign tests for which ankle ligament tear?
The ligament of the head of the femur attaches to what two structures?
The fovea on the head of the femur and to the acetabular fossa, transverse acetabular ligament and margins of acetabular notch.
The ligament of the head of the femur carries what artery?
A small branch of the obturator artery, to supply the head of the femur.
This structure converts the acetabular notch into a foramen?
Transverse acetabular ligament
The acetabulum joins which 3 bones?
Pubis, ischium and ilium
What is a displaced fracture?
Disruption of retinacular vessels and comminuted fracture (3 or more pieces)
What is a undisplaced fracture?
Bone alignment is not disrupted
The Lachman test is done for which injury/disease?
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture/Tear
The Pivot Shift test is done for which injury/disease?
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture/Tear
Which of the knee ligaments are extracapsular?
MCL and LCL
Which of the knee ligaments are intracapsular?
ACL, PCL, and menisci
When the knee is extended, is the ACL or PCL taut?
When the knee is flexed, is the ACL or PCL taut?
Which muscle "unlocks" the knee?
What does the "Q-angle" measure?
The ratio of strength between the quadriceps and hamstrings
What is anosmia?
Loss of smell
The nasal mucous membrane contains a plexus formed by these anastomosing branches of arteries:
1. ophthalmic 2. Maxillary 3. Facial
In what region do most nosebleed's occur?
Kiesselback plexus AKA little's area
The parasympathetic fibers to the nose come from which cranial nerve?
CN VII (GVE)
The sympathetic fibers to the nose have what function?
Vasoconstrictive. From T1-T2, and GVE
The nasolacrimal duct opens into which meatus?
Inferior nasal meatus
What drains into the middle nasal meatus?
Maxillary sinus, frontonasal duct, Anterior ethmoidal air cells, middle ethmoidal air cells
What drains into the superior nasal meatus?
Posterior ethmoidal air cells
What drains into the spheno-ethmoidal recess?
Where are the lingual tonsils located?
The posterior 1/3 of tongue?
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
between the palatoglossal folds and the palatopharyngeal folds.
Patients with which other disease are predisposed to trigeminal neuralgia?
Where does the maxillary nerve enter the skull?
Where the ophthalmic nerve enter the skull?
Superior orbital fissure
Where does the mandibular nerve enter the skull?
Which of the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve is the largest?
The Mandibular nerve
Which artery supplies the structures of the infratemporal fossa?
Where does CN VII exit the brainstem?
Anterolateral surface of the pons.
What is Dysgeusia?
Altered sense of taste
What is Hyperacusis?
Increased sensitivity to sound
Which cranial nerve innervates the parotid gland?
CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
The facial nerve sends preganglionic parasympathetics to which two glands?
Lacrimal gland and submandibular/sublingual gland
What are the facial nerve branches?
Tell Ziggy Bob Marley Called.
Temporal branch, Zygomatic branch, Buccal branch, Marginal mandibular branch, Cervical branch
Bells' Palsy is an example of what type of lesion?
Lower motor neuron lesion.
What is enophthalmos?
Recession of the eye into the orbit
What is ptosis?
dropping of the eyelid
What is hypotropia?
Downward deviation of one eye relative to the other
What is dystocia and which case is it associated with?
Difficult birth, Upper Brachial plexus (Erb) Palsy
The "Moro Reflex" test is done to check for what?
See if the infant has upper brachial plexus palsy
The Radial groove is on the posterior aspect of the shaft of the humerus, what runs through it?
Radial nerve and profunda brachii artery and veins
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