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100 terms

US Government Study Guide Chpt. 6-10

STUDY
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The degree to which individuals express trust in government is known as
political trust
during presidential primary contests, polling is important to
candidates, contributors, and voters
"Would you more likely or less likely to vote for congressman Jones, who voted to raise your taxes 22 times?" Which type of poll includes this kind of question?
push poll
in opinion polling, the difference between the sample result and what the true result would be if the entrie population had been interviewed is termed
sampling error
an opinion leader is
someone able to influence other's opinions
the transfer of political attitudes and beliefs
is more likely to occur from parents to children
a(n)_____ is an enduring effect of the events of a particular time on the politcal opinions of those who came of political age at that time
generational effect
Which of the following is a form of political expression?
participating in a demonstration
the systematic questionaing of a small, selected sample of respondents who are representative of the total population is known as a(n)
opinion poll
the national government is very responsive to the publics demand for action when
public opinion shifts dramatically
the phenomenom of certain attitudes occuring at certain chronological ages is known as
the life cycle effect
which of the following minority groups is predominantly republican?
cuban americans
the most important principle in sampling, or poll taking, is
randomness
peer groups are more likely to influence politcal opiniona when
peers are actively involved in politcal activities
general agreement among the citizenry on an issue constitutes
a consensus
____ is the value assigned to a person due to occupation or income
socioeconomic status
voters who exhibit high degrees of religiosity and attend services regularly, regardless of church affiliation, are
more likely to vote republican
by federal law, unsolicited calls to cell phones that use automated dialing devices are
prohibited
american women are more likely than american men to support
social welfare programs
which of the following statements is consistent with the generational effect on political opinions?
the 1960s and 1970s, dominated by events such as Vietnam and Watergate, gave rise to widespread cynicism about the government
an organized refusal to purchase a particular product or to deal with a particular business as a form of pressure or protest is known as
a boycott
artificially manufactured grassroots lobbying has been labeled
astroturf lobbying
the use of public relations techniques to create favorable public opinion of an interest group, industry, or corporation is known as
climate control
the 2009 decision of the supreme court in ____ makes is possible for unions, interest groups, and corporations to spend money directly on advertising for and against candidates
citizen united v. federal election committee
in the early 1990s, environmental, labor, and consumer groups formed an alliance called____ to oppose the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Citizens Trade Campaign
A strategy employed by interest groups that uses third parties to influence government officials is known as a(n)
indirect technique
successful interest groups and their representatives try to cultivate long-term relationships with
legislators and government officials
when the national rifle association(NRA) selected the late actor____as its president, it successfully executed a strategy of choosing a leader with a particular image to help it achieve its goals
Charlton Heston
pursing the best interests of the overall community, rather than the narrow interests of a particular group, is known as pursing
the public interest
since 1960, the greatest growth in unionization has occurred among
public employees
most interest groups in the united states organize to represent____interests
economic
persons who support the activities of a group based on a agreement with its goals would respond to membership appeals that employ____incentives
purposive
the largest and perhaps most powerful interest group in the United States is
AARP
the american association of retired persons(AARP) induces people to join its ranks with______incentives
material
______incentives incite people to join groups because of the sense of belonging that they offer
solidary
a free rider is
someone who benefits from the actions of a group without joining it
a latent interest is an interest
neither recognized nor represented by an interest group
the human rights campaign, which represents the gay, lesbian, and transgender community, is currently lobbying to
repeal the Defense of Marriage Act
James Madison, in Federalist Paper No. 10, argued that
a multitude of interests protects minority views in a democracy
Alexis de Tocqueville observed in 1834 that "in no country of the world has the principle of association been
more successfully used or applied to a greater multitude of objectives than in America
Lobbying is
an attempt by an individual or an organization to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government
the ease of access to government which interest groups exploit is sometimes called the_____view of politics
"multiple cracks"
a voter or a candidate who does not identify with a political party is called a(n)
independent
a political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning is called a
two-party system
From 1800 to 1820, a majority of U.S. voters regularly elected____to the presidency and to Congress
Republicans
the_____emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consistent of former Northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats
Republican Party
Progressivism was
a belief that honest, impartial government could effectively curb the growing power of large corpotations
During the late 1960s,
urban riots and anti-Vietnam War protests pushed many voters towards conservatism
new democratic voters, who contributed to the increased turnout at the polls during the 2008 presidential election, were
more affluent individuals who made over $100,000
Which political party has controlled the White House for most of the last four decades?
Republicans
Which of the following statements about parties' core constituents is true?
democrats receive disproportionate support from the least well-educated voters
which of the following groups is more likely than the others to affiliate with the democratic party?
women
which of the following groups is more likely than the others to affiliate with the republican party?
christian churchgoers
deomocrats of today emphasize
social welfare and protection of seniors' benefits
of the 10 states with the highest income per capita,_____ voted for democrat John Kerry in 2004
eight
the members of the general public who identify with a political party are known as
the party-in-the-electorate
the structural framework of the political party that recruits volunteers to become party leaders and identifies potential candidates is
the party orginization
the meeting held every four years by each major party to select presidential and vice-presidential candidates, to write a platform, to choose a national committee, and to conduct party business is the
national convention
the party_______is a document created at each national convention outlining the party's policies, positions, and principles.
platform
to become a delegate to the national party convention, a person
must be appointed by party leaders
the rewarding of faithful party workers with government jobs or contracts is known as
patronage
a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of congress is known as
a divided government
in cases where no presidential candidate recieves a majority of the electoral college vote,
the election is decided in the U.S. House of Representatives
the total number of electors today in the electoral college is
538
the people who cast their ballots in the electoral college are called
electors
a party-column ballot
arranges candidates in one column under their respective party's label
the united states uses a secret ballot that is prepared, distributed, and counted by officials at public expense. This ballot is called_____ballot.
Australian
In the united states, all federal general elections are normally held on the
first tuesday in november
when voters can vote in either part primary without disclosing party affiliation, it is called a(n)
open primary
the purpose of a______is to choose a candidate who will become the party's nominee for the general election
primary election
in the summer of 2006, the voting rights act was
extended for an additional 25 years in legislation signed by President Bush
the requirements to register to vote are
citizenship, age and residency
the twenty-sixth amendement, which reduced the voting age to 18, was ratified in the
1970s
women could vote in all states witch the ratification of the_______amendment in 1920.
Nineteenth
the writers of the constitution allowed______to decide who should vote
the states
in a recall election, voters can
Remove elected officials from the office
the lack of incentive for voters to obtain costly information about issues and candidates is known as the________effect
rational ignorance
voter turnout was_______percentage points higher in the 2008 election for those who had some college experience as opposed to those who had never been to high school
30
the americans who turn out to vote at the lowest rate are
the youngest voters
the americans who have the highest voter turnout are
reaching retirement
voter turnout for the local election is______the turnout for presidential elections
less than
in the modern presidential elections,
the winner has never been elected by more than 39 percent of the total voting-age population
the total cost for all federal elections in the 2010-2012 cycle was estimated at more than $_______billion
6
______get involved in politcal activities to further their careers, to carry out specific political programs, or in response to certain issues or events
self-starters
naturalized citizens are constitutionally barred from running for the office of
president of the United States
in the last twenty years, the number of women running for office at the federal and state level has
increased significantly
candidates for public office are likely to be
professionals, especially lawyers
in 2012, the number of voters who identify themselves as independent is _______percent
40
the______is responsible for dealing directly with the journalists covering the campaign
press secretary
a small group of individuals that is gathered to identify in-dept feelings about candidates and issues is called a
focus group
a spin doctor is a
political campaign adviser who tries to convince journalists of the truth of a particular interpretation of events
the general intent of the federal corrupt practices acts passedby Congress was to
regulate campaign financing
the Supreme Court ruled in Buckley v. Valeo that____cannot be banned under the constitution
the amount a candidate spends on a campaign
a politcal action committee (PAC) is
set up by a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group to raise campaign donations and funnel the money to candidates
about____percent of all campaign funds raised by house candidates in 2010 came from PACs
35
most PAC contributions go to
incumbents
advertising paid for by interest groups that supportor oppose a candidate or a candidate's position on an issue without mentioning voting or elections is called
issue advocacy advertising
the Bipartisan Campaign reform act of 2002
bans soft money contributions to national parties
donating to 527s and super PACs appeals to_______ because they do not want to damage their name and alienate the public
corporations
a presidential primary in which contending candidates compete for popular votes but the results do not control the selection of delegates to the national convention is referred to as
a "beauty contest"