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The degree to which individuals express trust in government is known as

political trust

during presidential primary contests, polling is important to

candidates, contributors, and voters

"Would you more likely or less likely to vote for congressman Jones, who voted to raise your taxes 22 times?" Which type of poll includes this kind of question?

push poll

in opinion polling, the difference between the sample result and what the true result would be if the entrie population had been interviewed is termed

sampling error

an opinion leader is

someone able to influence other's opinions

the transfer of political attitudes and beliefs

is more likely to occur from parents to children

a(n)_____ is an enduring effect of the events of a particular time on the politcal opinions of those who came of political age at that time

generational effect

Which of the following is a form of political expression?

participating in a demonstration

the systematic questionaing of a small, selected sample of respondents who are representative of the total population is known as a(n)

opinion poll

the national government is very responsive to the publics demand for action when

public opinion shifts dramatically

the phenomenom of certain attitudes occuring at certain chronological ages is known as

the life cycle effect

which of the following minority groups is predominantly republican?

cuban americans

the most important principle in sampling, or poll taking, is


peer groups are more likely to influence politcal opiniona when

peers are actively involved in politcal activities

general agreement among the citizenry on an issue constitutes

a consensus

____ is the value assigned to a person due to occupation or income

socioeconomic status

voters who exhibit high degrees of religiosity and attend services regularly, regardless of church affiliation, are

more likely to vote republican

by federal law, unsolicited calls to cell phones that use automated dialing devices are


american women are more likely than american men to support

social welfare programs

which of the following statements is consistent with the generational effect on political opinions?

the 1960s and 1970s, dominated by events such as Vietnam and Watergate, gave rise to widespread cynicism about the government

an organized refusal to purchase a particular product or to deal with a particular business as a form of pressure or protest is known as

a boycott

artificially manufactured grassroots lobbying has been labeled

astroturf lobbying

the use of public relations techniques to create favorable public opinion of an interest group, industry, or corporation is known as

climate control

the 2009 decision of the supreme court in ____ makes is possible for unions, interest groups, and corporations to spend money directly on advertising for and against candidates

citizen united v. federal election committee

in the early 1990s, environmental, labor, and consumer groups formed an alliance called____ to oppose the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Citizens Trade Campaign

A strategy employed by interest groups that uses third parties to influence government officials is known as a(n)

indirect technique

successful interest groups and their representatives try to cultivate long-term relationships with

legislators and government officials

when the national rifle association(NRA) selected the late actor____as its president, it successfully executed a strategy of choosing a leader with a particular image to help it achieve its goals

Charlton Heston

pursing the best interests of the overall community, rather than the narrow interests of a particular group, is known as pursing

the public interest

since 1960, the greatest growth in unionization has occurred among

public employees

most interest groups in the united states organize to represent____interests


persons who support the activities of a group based on a agreement with its goals would respond to membership appeals that employ____incentives


the largest and perhaps most powerful interest group in the United States is


the american association of retired persons(AARP) induces people to join its ranks with______incentives


______incentives incite people to join groups because of the sense of belonging that they offer


a free rider is

someone who benefits from the actions of a group without joining it

a latent interest is an interest

neither recognized nor represented by an interest group

the human rights campaign, which represents the gay, lesbian, and transgender community, is currently lobbying to

repeal the Defense of Marriage Act

James Madison, in Federalist Paper No. 10, argued that

a multitude of interests protects minority views in a democracy

Alexis de Tocqueville observed in 1834 that "in no country of the world has the principle of association been

more successfully used or applied to a greater multitude of objectives than in America

Lobbying is

an attempt by an individual or an organization to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government

the ease of access to government which interest groups exploit is sometimes called the_____view of politics

"multiple cracks"

a voter or a candidate who does not identify with a political party is called a(n)


a political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning is called a

two-party system

From 1800 to 1820, a majority of U.S. voters regularly elected____to the presidency and to Congress


the_____emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consistent of former Northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats

Republican Party

Progressivism was

a belief that honest, impartial government could effectively curb the growing power of large corpotations

During the late 1960s,

urban riots and anti-Vietnam War protests pushed many voters towards conservatism

new democratic voters, who contributed to the increased turnout at the polls during the 2008 presidential election, were

more affluent individuals who made over $100,000

Which political party has controlled the White House for most of the last four decades?


Which of the following statements about parties' core constituents is true?

democrats receive disproportionate support from the least well-educated voters

which of the following groups is more likely than the others to affiliate with the democratic party?


which of the following groups is more likely than the others to affiliate with the republican party?

christian churchgoers

deomocrats of today emphasize

social welfare and protection of seniors' benefits

of the 10 states with the highest income per capita,_____ voted for democrat John Kerry in 2004


the members of the general public who identify with a political party are known as

the party-in-the-electorate

the structural framework of the political party that recruits volunteers to become party leaders and identifies potential candidates is

the party orginization

the meeting held every four years by each major party to select presidential and vice-presidential candidates, to write a platform, to choose a national committee, and to conduct party business is the

national convention

the party_______is a document created at each national convention outlining the party's policies, positions, and principles.


to become a delegate to the national party convention, a person

must be appointed by party leaders

the rewarding of faithful party workers with government jobs or contracts is known as


a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of congress is known as

a divided government

in cases where no presidential candidate recieves a majority of the electoral college vote,

the election is decided in the U.S. House of Representatives

the total number of electors today in the electoral college is


the people who cast their ballots in the electoral college are called


a party-column ballot

arranges candidates in one column under their respective party's label

the united states uses a secret ballot that is prepared, distributed, and counted by officials at public expense. This ballot is called_____ballot.


In the united states, all federal general elections are normally held on the

first tuesday in november

when voters can vote in either part primary without disclosing party affiliation, it is called a(n)

open primary

the purpose of a______is to choose a candidate who will become the party's nominee for the general election

primary election

in the summer of 2006, the voting rights act was

extended for an additional 25 years in legislation signed by President Bush

the requirements to register to vote are

citizenship, age and residency

the twenty-sixth amendement, which reduced the voting age to 18, was ratified in the


women could vote in all states witch the ratification of the_______amendment in 1920.


the writers of the constitution allowed______to decide who should vote

the states

in a recall election, voters can

Remove elected officials from the office

the lack of incentive for voters to obtain costly information about issues and candidates is known as the________effect

rational ignorance

voter turnout was_______percentage points higher in the 2008 election for those who had some college experience as opposed to those who had never been to high school


the americans who turn out to vote at the lowest rate are

the youngest voters

the americans who have the highest voter turnout are

reaching retirement

voter turnout for the local election is______the turnout for presidential elections

less than

in the modern presidential elections,

the winner has never been elected by more than 39 percent of the total voting-age population

the total cost for all federal elections in the 2010-2012 cycle was estimated at more than $_______billion


______get involved in politcal activities to further their careers, to carry out specific political programs, or in response to certain issues or events


naturalized citizens are constitutionally barred from running for the office of

president of the United States

in the last twenty years, the number of women running for office at the federal and state level has

increased significantly

candidates for public office are likely to be

professionals, especially lawyers

in 2012, the number of voters who identify themselves as independent is _______percent


the______is responsible for dealing directly with the journalists covering the campaign

press secretary

a small group of individuals that is gathered to identify in-dept feelings about candidates and issues is called a

focus group

a spin doctor is a

political campaign adviser who tries to convince journalists of the truth of a particular interpretation of events

the general intent of the federal corrupt practices acts passedby Congress was to

regulate campaign financing

the Supreme Court ruled in Buckley v. Valeo that____cannot be banned under the constitution

the amount a candidate spends on a campaign

a politcal action committee (PAC) is

set up by a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group to raise campaign donations and funnel the money to candidates

about____percent of all campaign funds raised by house candidates in 2010 came from PACs


most PAC contributions go to


advertising paid for by interest groups that supportor oppose a candidate or a candidate's position on an issue without mentioning voting or elections is called

issue advocacy advertising

the Bipartisan Campaign reform act of 2002

bans soft money contributions to national parties

donating to 527s and super PACs appeals to_______ because they do not want to damage their name and alienate the public


a presidential primary in which contending candidates compete for popular votes but the results do not control the selection of delegates to the national convention is referred to as

a "beauty contest"

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