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GCTS Church History 2 Dr Fortson
Terms in this set (15)
How Did Luther Understand the place of "Tradition"?
Luther had a high view on tradition. He believed it was good but some traditions were hurting people more than helping. In line with the illustration given to us this semester. There's a drawer and Luther Looked into the drawer and only took a couple of things out such as the authority of the Pope, the merit of good works, indulgences, and meditation of the Virgin Mary and other saints. But Luther never intended to break away from the Roman Catholic Church, he only wanted to fix the issues he saw. He thought that tradition was important and helpful but saw the ill effects of tradition and reason for tradition not being taught. He saw how tradition was being used as ways to get to God. He, along with the reformers and the Roman Catholic Church, held the orthodox doctrines stated in the general creeds of the early church. Except he understood these doctrines in the context of salvation in Christ alone. The creeds are helpful to recognize salvation in Christ and for Christian formation. But unlike the Roman Catholic Church, Luther didn't think tradition was not equivalent to Scripture. SO tradition has its place but its secondary to Christ, Scripture and grace.
How did the Renaissance help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation?
the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God. Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin.
Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament. In October 1517 Luther published the 95 Theses, challenging papal authority and criticizing its perceived corruption, particularly with regard to instances of sold indulgences. The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts. ideals of Christian humanism and the Renaissance, which called for a rebirth of what the humanists believed was the true good, the original rightness, in humans and society
Individual self awareness.
Why is Erasmus important for any study of the 16th C?
Using humanist techniques for working on his texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. Sparked reformation.
Erasmus would be embroiled in an intellectual debate over human nature, free will and religion. Though Erasmus supported Protestant ideals, he was against the radicalism of some of its leaders
Describe Zwingli's ministry in Zurich.
He was a Catholic priest that would serve as the chaplin for the Swiss forces. In his time as a priest he would meet Erasmus and would be influenced by him. Later He would read the 95 thesies and would be fascinated by them and would soon become Lutheran. He soon began to be part of the reformation movement in Zurich. He would pastor a church then and would put emphasis on hearing the word of God. To the point that he would get rid of relics and even the organ to not distract from hearing the Word. Over time he would correspond with Luther and they would disagree on topics such as communion. The Marburg Colloquy would happen in which him and Luther would meet to resolve the issue but would end up disagreeing and nothing would be resolve. He would die in battle against the Catholic Armies in the battle of Kappel.
The Swiss reformer influenced by
Pastoral concerns not out of just the high thinking issues.
What happened at the Marburg Colloquy?
Meeting between Luther and Zwingli and other reformers, such as Philipp Melanchthon, and Martin Bucer. It was intended to unite the protestant states and to settle the disputes between Luther and Zwingli about communion. The point at issue in the debate concerned the nature of Christ's Presence in the bread and wine of the Eucharist. Christ had said, "This is my body," when instituting the Eucharist, and Luther defended the literal understanding of the statement. Zwingli contended that the Eucharist was a symbolic memorial rite, and he was willing to accept the doctrine of the spiritual Presence of Christ in the sacrament. Luther and Zwingli believed that their differences could not be worked out, but Bucer, a member of the delegation from Strassburg, who spoke at the end of the colloquy, believed that they could possibly be reconciled. Because of the deadlock the German princes would withdraw their support of the Swiss reformation.
Who were the Anabaptists and what did the Schleitheim Confession teach?
The Anabaptists were the radicals of the protestant reformation. They didn't believe in the baptism of children because they believed only an adult who had consciously received salvation should be baptized. They began rebaptising people who had been baptized as children. This did not go over well with the city leaders in which then they started persecute the people involved in the Anabaptist movement.
After the they were dispersed the anabaptist leaders from Switzerland and Southern Germany. They would meet in Schleitheim, Switzerland in 1527. They would discuss and agree on Baptism of those who have consciously repented.
• Who could participate in the Lord's Supper,
• the ban of members who fell in sin,
• separation from sin and sinful people,
• abstaining from things that could harm such as weapons,
• on the testimony of pastors,
• and not making oaths because Jesus taught not to make oaths.
What were the contributions of Menno Simons to the Anabaptist movement?
Menno was a priest that became a Anabaptist. His work in the Anabaptist movement was important in giving the movement a foundation to stand on after they had been persecuted and the incident at Munster. His contributions to the movement were furthering the teaching on pacifism. Menno (and, later, his wife and his children) lived in constant danger as heretics. He traveled throughout the Netherlands and Germany, writing extensively and establishing a printing press to circulate Anabaptist teaching. He took the Bible extremely literally, sometimes even legalistically; though he defended the doctrine of the Trinity in a small book, he refused to use the term because it did not appear in Scripture.
His writings aren't the most articulate Anabaptist theological treatises, nor are they the first. But they served to defend the faith against both Catholic and Protestant attacks and to distance the group from more zealous militants
How did Calvin reform the city of Geneva?
Calvin was trying to build a city of God, Calvin reformed the city of Geneva by first setting up church government. T Calvin put great emphasis upon Christian education. He knew that the Reformation would only be effective as people knew and obeyed God's Word. He devised a catechetical system for the young which was carried all over Europe. Primary and elementary schools were set up to educate the people, so they could be better Christians. Calvin established the Academy at Geneva, the first Protestant University, where thousands of young men were trained for the ministry of the Word.
For calvin the church was suprime. It should not be restricted in any way by the state.
9. Describe the 1534 Act of Supremacy and the 1539 Six Articles Act.
The 1534 Act of Supremacy recognized King Henery VIII as the "Supreme Head of the Church of England" It also required English subjects to an oath of loyalty and recognized his marriage to Anne Boleyn. The 1539 Six Articles acts was It enumerated precisely and clearly six points of mediaeval doctrine and practice which the Protestants had begun to assail, and imposed severe penalties on all who would not accept them. The first article expressed the doctrine of transubstantiation. Those denying this were to be burnt. If the other five articles were impeached the penalties were, for the first offence, confiscation of property, for the second, execution as a felon. The five articles declared (1) the doctrine of transubstantiation (2) that communion in both kinds was unnecessary; (3) that priests ought not to marry; (4) that the vows of chastity ought to be observed in both sexes; (5) that private masses were allowable; (6) that auricular confession was necessary.
How was the Protestant cause furthered in England under Edward VI?
Three men had the largest impact on the progress of Protestantism under Edward VI: Nicholas Ridley—scholar, Hugh Latimer—a preacher, and Thomas Cranmer—archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer did the most to create the Church of England. He brought about the Great Bible and the Book of Common Prayer, and he was responsible for the Ten Articles. This was a compromise document that included:
• Affirmation of three sacraments: baptism, Lord 's Supper and repentance
• Statement that saints are to be honored but not adored
• Believers may pray for dead, but purgatory is nonexistent
• Justification is by faith
Later, the later Forty-Two Articles went further in laying out the doctrine of the Anglican Church. Thirty-nine of those articles are still held by Anglicans today.
How did John Knox reform the church in Scotland?
Although he wasn't the first reformer in Scotland, Knox was more responsible than anyone for the Protestant movement there. He founded the Church of Scotland, and is known as the father of Presbyterianism.
Knox distrusted anything that reminded him of the Catholic Mass, and was particularly harsh when it came to idolatry. His famous sermon in Perth sparked riots by people demanding reformation. The Scots Confession he helped write contained sections on morality, the Holy Spirit and the sacraments. His Book of Order established the liturgy of the church. His Book of Discipline was the constitution of the new national church established by the Scottish parliament in 1560.
Discuss the goals of the Elizabethan Puritan movement
The monarch of the time sought a religious middle ground. Elizabeth did not espouse Catholic or Puritan ideas but tolerated them while sticking with the status quo of Anglicanism. For the Puritans this was not good enough as they wished to continue reforming the Anglican Church of "popacy." They desired a more fully reformed church, more on the lines of Calvin's Geneva. Thus those who worked to purify the church beyond what the government had established were called Puritans. The Elizabethan Puritans worked from within the Church of England to abolish religious ceremonies thought to be remnants from Catholicism- the use of the cross in baptism, the surplice, kneeling at communion and concerns about Church government and the use of bishops.
In the early years of Elizabeths reign the Puritans had more support in Parliament and hope for coming reform. Their leaders were Thomas Cartwright and William Perkins. But Elizabeth was unwilling to allow changes along Puritan lines and King James was equally unwilling to reform. Without reform some Puritans remained in the Anglican Church and only marginally conformed to Anglicanism whereas a smaller movement of Puritans emerged who became known as Separatists. In 1581, lead by Robert Browne, a group of Separatists, called Brownists, no longer viewed the Anglican Church as legitimate and formed their own church. This marked the beginning of the English Independent or Congregationalist movement. Many were persecuted by the Anglican leaders and fled to Holland and some eventually immigrated to America.
What were Jacob Spener's proposals for reforming the Lutheran Church?
Spener saw himself as completing Luther's reformation. Against what he saw in the German Lutheran Church of the late 17th Century (a "dead orthodoxy"), Spener emphasized house meetings for prayer, personal Bible study and the sharing of Christian experience. In 1670 Spener began to bring together small groups of believers who, like himself, were not satisfied with a lifeless religion. They met for the purpose of Bible study, prayer and for the watching over of one another. "Before long these meetings were being conducted throughout the city. Persons of like interests in spiritual edification gravitated together to form cells that promoted Christian piety and earnest devotion." Spener did not consider these meetings as a new church but as an extension of the Reformation within the reformation churches. They encouraged the formation of "cell groups," that is little churches, within the Church. "Pietists in the Netherlands were the first to use the term `huis Kerk' or house church for their renewal meetings." In these meetings Spener found expression for the burdens of his heart. With great zeal he preached repentance, declaring the apostasy of the Bride of Christ from her first love. "He consistently heralded a message that emphasized the Biblical command for holy character and holy living." He published his Pia Desideria in 1675, a "manifesto of Pietism," to remedy the spiritual decay within the church. He objected to the rigidity of ecclesiastical structures and the lack of moral discipline among the clergy.
What were the key emphases of John Wesley's ministry?
Wesley traveled 250,000 miles on horseback and preached some 40,000 sermons. He and his brother Charles were convinced that at all costs Britain must hear the good news of salvation. Wesley's call was to travel from place to place. He had enormous organizational skill. Wesley stressed "prevenient grace" -God's grace stirs up within us a desire to know God and empowers us to respond to God's invitation to be in relationship with God. God's grace enables us to discern differences between good and evil and makes it possible for us to choose good....- a special grace that God gives to everyone. Be active and involved, said Wesley, and strive for perfection through an "entire sanctification." -Justifying grace of God. They point to reconciliation, pardon, and restoration. Through the work of God in Christ our sins are forgiven, and our relationship with God is restored. According to John Wesley, founder of the Methodist movement, the image of God — which has been distorted by sin — is renewed within us through Christ's death. -Sanctifying grace, we grow and mature in our ability to live as Jesus lived. As we pray, study the Scriptures, fast, worship, and share in fellowship with other Christians, we deepen our knowledge of and love for God. As we respond with compassion to human need and work for justice in our communities, we strengthen our capacity to love neighbor. Our inner thoughts and motives, as well as our outer actions and behavior, are aligned with God's will and testify to our union with God.
What was the Puritan vision for the New World?
The Puritan heart desire, mindset and motivation is not hard to understand. The dream and vision is for a just and godly nation. The Puritans imagined themselves as a special people on a sacred errand into the wilderness of a New World. Their religious faith was not to be forced on anyone, but was to grow naturally through the hope, love, and faith practiced by all members of their society. Government and religion reflected Puritans' understanding of God's preordained order. A person who helped set up this vision was John Winthrop, who was the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and spearheaded the establishment of Puritan government. His vision for the colony was influenced by Calvin's Geneva. Winthrop gave a sermon "A Model of Christian Charity". In it, he called for his followers to lead lives of virtue and effort, love and compassion, sharing and helping. He warned that the world would be watching, and that in the face of great challenge his followers needed to rise above and create a model society in their highly visible "city upon a hill."