47 terms

Biology

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Plastids
Surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA- Plants Only
Plastids
Contain Pigments which absorb visible light- Plants Only
Cell Wall
The rigidity helps support and protect the plant.
Cell Wall- Primary
Plant cell is being formed
Cell Wall- Secondary
Tough & Woody
Vacuoles- Plants Only
Store Enzymes & Metabolic Wastes, Fluid-Filled, Could take up 90% of the volume of the cell, some wastes could be toxic, could provide defense mechanisms
Nucleolus
Site where ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled before they pass through the nuclear pores to the cytosol
Nucleus
Stores hereditary info in its DNA, Site where RNA is copied from DNA
Nuclear Envelope
The double membrane that surrounds the nucleus, inside are fine strands of chromatin- DNA & Protein, Forms chromosomes when cell is about to divide
Nucleus
Maintains its shape with the help of a protein skeleton known as the nuclear matrix, surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope
Ribosomes
Synthesis of proteins, some are free and some attach to the endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
Proteins to be used within the cytosol are produced on the ribosomes that are free in the cytosol
Ribosomes
Proteins to be inserted into membranes or exported from the cell are produced on the ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of membranous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Functions as a intracellular highway, a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Prominent in cells that make large amounts of proteins to be exported from the cell or inserted into the cell membrane.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Involved in the synthesis of steroids in gland cells, the regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells, and the break down of toxic substances by liver cells.
Golgi Apparatus
Processing, packaging, and the secreting organelle of the cell, convex shape, modifies proteins for export by the cell
Lysosomes
small, spherical organelles that enclose hydrolytic enzymes within single membranes; digest proteins, carbs, lipids, DNA, RNA, old organelles, viruses, bacteria; rare in plant cells
Cytoskeleton
A network of long protein strands located in the cytosol; support, movement of organelles; microfilaments and microtubules
Microfilaments
Made of protein called actin; many that are linked together to form polymer chain; smallest strands of cytoskeleton; contribute to cell movement and contraction of muscle cells
Microtubules
Largest strands of cytoskeleton; hollow tubes;t when a cell is about to divide, bundles of microtubules come together and extend across the cell spindle fibers
Cilia
Short, hairlike organelles that extends from a cell and functions in locomotion or in the movement of substances across the cell surface
Cristae- Mitochondria
Inner membrane that has many long folds; Enlarge the surface area of the inner membrane providing more space for the chemical reactions
Mitochondrion
Transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP; more numerous in cells that have a high energy requirement: liver, muscles
ATP
The molecule that most cells use as their main energy currency.
Cytosol
The gelatin-like aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane; dissolved are salts, minerals, and organic molecules
Cytoplasm
The region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus; contains the various organelles of the cell
Fluid Mosaic Model
The lipid bilayer behaves more like a fluid than a solid; the membrane's lipids and proteins can move laterally within the lipid bilayer; cell membrane is constantly changing
Peripheral Proteins
located on both the interior surface and the exterior surface of the cell membrane
Integral Proteins
Proteins that are embedded in the bilayer
Abiotic Factor
any nonliving component of an ecosystem
Aboral Surface
The surface opposite the mouth on an echinoderm
Abscisic Acid
a hormone in plants that helps regulate the growth of buds and the germination of seeds
Abscission Zone
the area at the base of a leaf petiole where the leaf breaks off from the stem
Absorption
in digestion, the movement of nutrients to the circulatory system
Accessory Pigment
a pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers energy to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis
acclimation
the process of an organism's adjustment to an abiotic factor
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
the compound that reacts with oxaloacetic acid in the first step of the Kreb's cycle
acid
any substance that increases the concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions when added to a water solution
aceolomate
an animal with no coelem, or body cavity
Actin
One of the two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
Activation Energy
Amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to start and to continue on its own
Active Transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient; requires the cell to expend energy
adaptive radiation
an evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species
adductor muscle
the muscle with which a bivalve closes its shell
adenine
a nitrogen-containing base that is a component of a nucleotide
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