34 terms

Sociolinguistics Terms (Linguistics 210) TWU 2/2


Terms in this set (...)

Critical Period Hypothesis:
Period during which language learning seems to be easiest.
Real Time
Comparing data from the same community at two or more periods in time.
Apparent Time
Comparing data from speakers of different ages in a single-speech community at a single time.
Language-Internal Processes
Language change through making new words with the processes we have already in the language.
New Compounds
Words like snail-mail.
When bits of words are combined to make new words (hangry, brunch, foodar).
When a word is changed from one part of speech to another (google it).
Add Affixes
Prefixes and suffixes are added to stems to make new words (adulting, unwise, dullness)
When languages adopt words from other languages, often in an adapted form that matches the adopting language's sound system.
Semantic Drift
When words change their meaning over time.
Showing or possessing good manners or courtesy; considered refined or cultivated.
Feeling that exists in situations where two people agree they have strong common interests.
Syntactic or morphological distinctions used to express levels of politeness or respect, especially in relation to the compared social status of the participants.
Negative Politeness Strategy
"I'm a so forgetful, can I borrow..." (put oneself down).
Positive Politeness Strategy
"You look nice today, can I borrow..." (emphasize closeness to person).
Positive Face
The desire to be appreciated and accepted by others.
Negative Face
The desire to be unconstrained by others in one's actions.
Face-threatening Acts
Doing something which threaten to disturb either the speaker or the hearer's face.
Humanities greatest natural gift.
Humanity's most artificial innovation.
Bilingual Education
A school system in which students with little fluency in a national language are taught in both their native language and the national language.
All language in a community are maintained: multilingualism, diglossia/code-switching, lingua franca/LWCs.
New 'mixed' languages: Pidgins and creoles.
People start speaking new languages: Lingua franca/LWCs, endangered languages, language death.
Speech form created by speakers in a language contact situation who share no common language. It has no native speakers and is characterized by instability.
A pidgin that has acquired native speakers.
Language Shift
The process by which a community increases its use of one language at the expense of another.
Language Maintenance
A situation where, in spite of strong incentives to shift to another language, people continue to use their native language.
Horizontal Multilingualism
Speakers live in their own geographic spaces and are often monolingual.
Vertical Multilingualism
People work, live, go to school, and shop in communities with speakers of other languages.
Subjective Ethnolinguistic Vitality
What the group thinks about itself in relation to other groups may be as important as the more objective factors.
Language Death
When a community shifts to a new language totally so that the old language is no longer used.
World English
English as a world language in all its variety
Global Language
A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country.