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AP Human Geography Princeton Review Chapter 5
Terms in this set (71)
Economic activities that generate or extract raw materials from the natural environment
Third World countries
developing countries that lack economic opportunities
Having a job or career and responsibilities that go with it
gross domestic produce (GDP)
The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation
Agriculture that requires alot of labor inputs, or is focased on a small plot of land, or both
Agriculture that requires limited labor inputs, or is spread across large areas of land, or both
hunting and gathering societies
Early form of agriculture in which people travelled the land, making seasonal migrations to areas where food and water were periodically abundant
When groups moved seasonally not only to avoid harsh climates, but to follow animal herds and walk to areas where native plants were in fruit
Agriculture based on the seasonal movement of animals from winter to summer pastures and back again
the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
Plant varieties that have been grown and selected by people and have at least one distinguishing characteristic
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
The most important crop produced or consumed in a region.
Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm
multiple crops and animals exist on a single farm to provide diverse nutritional intake and non-food items
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
extensive subsistence agriculture
Agriculture that use of large amounts of land with minimal labor per land unit
Crops grown for immediate consumption as well as preservation
the raising of crops for market sale rather than domestic consumption
Crops grown for sale to make a profit.
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
Goods and services consumed in the country where they are produced.
send (goods or services) to another country for sale.
The gap between the rich and the poor
A socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1848) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views.
Collective farms grouped together to organize farming and plan public services
a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something.
the interconnections between human populations and the physical world
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
the planting of more than one crop on the same plot of land
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Harvesting three times a year from the same field
the season during which a crop grows best
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer.
The process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops.
A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment
Replacement of renewable resources at the same rate at which they are consumed
alternative energy crops
crops that can be used as a source for energy
An alcohol that can supplement gasoline and make it burn
a fuel that is similar to diesel fuel and is derived from usually vegetable sources
slash and burn agriculture (swidden)
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
When population per unit area exceeds the carrying capacity.
Any human process that turns a vegetated environment into a desert-like landscape
in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
the taking of seeds from existing plants and planting them to produce new plants
An agriculture activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
hybrid of european cattle and the Zebu cattle of india
The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
The manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful products.
when animals are used for meat or dairy products but are kept indoors in very small places
Corn that has been genetically modified to produce the Bacillus thurengiensis toxin, which controls insect damage to the corn
Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH)
hormones that mimic the real growth hormone of a cow's pituitary gland, resulting in increased production of milk and meat
corporate agriculture (agribusiness)
large-scale extensive farms of several thousand acres or several thousand animals are controlled by a single regional business
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
name or title
farm owners who have city jobs but still own land in rural areas
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
ultra-high temperature (UHT) pasteurization
The process by which milk is heated to a very HIGH temperature to kill bacteria
Johann Heinrich von Thunen
Developed an Agricultural Land Use Model that suggested that certain crops were grown in direct relation to their distance to market.
Type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense.
Plants - herbs - grown for medicinal purposes, as opposed to growing them for culinary or ornamental purposes
A forest that is cared for by people to yield benefits like wood products, water, recreation, and more.
A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed
value of labor and distance from center of model (higher total labor costs = closer to center)
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