Terms in this set (100)
In response to the statement "people are pretty much the same all over the world," an anthropologist would most likely respond that _______.
a broad comparative view brings such a statement into question
The best anthropologist to involve in the preservation of Native American remains at the site of the recent Walmart construction site in Anderson would have been _____.
a cultural resource manager
Culture rests upon all of the following biological capacities except the ability to _____.
bear children (learn, use tools, use language, think symbolically)
Kottak would seem to suggest there are so many different cultures because of ____________.
the many different ways humans have adapted to their environments
Anthropology would be least likely to have links to which academic discipline?
physics (philosophy, geology, sociology, music, psychology)
Biological or physical anthropology investigates all of the following except _____.
modern garbage (human growth and development, human genetics, human evolution, social life of monkeys)
Cultures shape human biological characteristics for all of the following reasons except _____.
cultures determine phenotypes (cultures set different standards for attractiveness, cultures create dietary differences that affect biological characteristics, cultures define ideal bodies, cultures encourage particular activities like body-building)
The perspective of ethnographic fieldwork often differs markedly from the perspectives of economics and political science because _____.
anthropologists usually focus on the powerless
Traditions and customs that are transmitted through learning and that play a large role in determining the beliefs and behaviors of a group of people are called _____.
Kottak argues that "anthropology is among the most humanistic of all academic fields," because it ________.
has a fundamental respect for human diversity
examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of other anthropological studies
Which of the following statements about archaeological anthropology is true?
Garbology reveals what people really do, not what they think they do.
Four field anthropology includes which of the following subdisciplines?
sociocultural, archaeological, biological, linguistic
Barak Obama's mother, Ann Dunham, ________.
embraced a philosophy of life that refuses to build walls around ourselves
Which of the following statements about four field anthropology is false?
Four field anthropology is popular in Europe today.
(1. Four field anthropology originated in North America.
2.Four field anthropology originated as a way to study Native Americans.
3. Four field anthropology is unified logically by its study of human variation in time and space.
4. Four field anthropology rests upon the fundamental assumption that no sound conclusion about human nature can be derived by studying a single society or culture.)
Kottak distinguishes humans from other animals, because only humans _____.
According to Kottak the most critical element of a cultural tradition is its _____.
transmission through learning
What kind of societies do anthropologists study?
all kinds of societies
Ethnographic fieldwork usually involves all of the following except _____.
becoming one with the people
(1. living in another society for a year
2. living with local people
3. discovering the way of life of a particular people
4. remaining an alien)
Which of the following statements about linguistic anthropology is false?
Historical linguists have confirmed Ussher's chronology of creation, namely that language began in 6004 B.C.
(1. Biological anthropologists study the anatomy that permits language.
2. Historical linguists study the grammatical differences between Middle English and modern English.
3. Sociolinguists study the class differences expressed in spoken English.
4. Primatologists describe the communication systems of monkeys.)
What are cultural particulars?
Traits unique to a given culture, not shared with any others.
There were at least seven different regions where agriculture developed, so agriculture must be an example of which of the following mechanisms of cultural change?
Which of the following statements about culture and symbols is false?
Symbols establish an obvious and necessary connection between the symbol and what it symbolizes.
(1. Symbolic thought is crucial to culture learning.
2. According to Leslie White, culture originated when people used symbols to bestow meanings on things and events.
3. Symbols can be either words or things.
4. Chimps and gorillas have rudimentary culture making abilities.)
Indigenous intellectual property rights include the notion that _____.
indigenous groups should control who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications
Attempts have been made to resolve the problems created by cultural relativism by adopting the stance that ___________.
humans have inalienable rights
Which of the following is not a mechanism of cultural change?
(1. diffusion 2. acculturation 3. independent invention 4. globalization
Which of the following statements about globalization is false?
Indigenous peoples have overwhelmingly welcomed the benefits of globalization.
(1. Globalization promotes change toward the mutual dependence of people and nations.
2. Globalization includes both diffusion and acculturation.
3. Globalization is advanced by international commerce.
4. Globalization is advanced by migration.
Which of the following is true about the relationship of individual and culture?
Culture provides guidance, but people don't always follow its rules
Which of the following is a cultural universal rather than a cultural generality?
social groups (1. lineages 2. the use of English in world business 3. nuclear families 4. families headed by males)
Perhaps the most crucial difference between humans and other hominids that enhances human ability to create cultures is ______________.
a. more cooperation and sharing
Clifford Geertz characterizes culture as _____.
a set of control mechanisms to govern behavior
In defining culture, early anthropologist Edward Tylor emphasized that _____.
culture is learned by growing up in a particular group
What kind of diffusion takes place when two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another?
Cultural relativism is _____.
the argument that one culture should not be judged by the standards of another
All of the following are examples of ways culture shapes nature except whether _____.
to sleep or not
(1. to urinate on the street or not
2. to eat pork or not
3. to build dams against floods
4. to eat with chopsticks or fingers)
Which of the following is an example of a cultural trait that is acquired unconsciously?
Knowing how far to stand away from someone during a conversation.
Which of the following statements about cultural integration is false?
Cultures are largely integrated around their dominant economic activities.
(1. Cultures are more than haphazard collections of customs and beliefs.
2. A change in one part of culture leads to changes in other parts of the culture.
3. Cultures train individuals to share certain personality traits.
4. One culture can be distinguished from another based on its set of core values.)
Which of the following is true of enculturation?
Enculturation unifies people by providing them with common experiences.
(1. Our peers are the primary people who enculturate us.
2. The notion of American individualism makes it more difficult for enculturation to occur.
3. Enculturation is a mechanism of cultural change.)
Which of the following statements about ethnocentrism is true?
It is the tendency to view another's culture as superior and to use that culture's values to judge the behavior and beliefs of people in your own culture.
To suggest that culture is all encompassing is to suggest that _____.
a comic book is as important a part of culture as an award winning novel
Ethnographic realism and the use of the ethnographic present are associated with _____.
Collecting life histories serve to accomplish all of the following goals except _____.
providing an etic perspective
(1. providing an emic perspective
2. revealing how specific people contribute to cultural change
3. providing an intimate cultural perspective
4. illustrating diversity within the community)
Which of the following statements about ethnography is false?
Ethnography began as researchers attempted to study village life in Europe.
(1. Ethnography originated among cultures where most of the people were very similar.
2. Ethnography among many different cultures provides the basis for making statements about human social life in general.
3. Ethnographers use a variety of research methodologies.
4. Ethnography is a research strategy that sets anthropology apart from other disciplines such as psychology and sociology.)
The hallmark of ethnography includes all of the following except _____.
anthropologists refuse to use impersonal surveys
(1. anthropologists get to know the people of a community
2. anthropologists observe the effects of national and international policies on local life
3. anthropologists particpate in local activities
4. anthropologists experience social conditions and problems)
In recent years anthropology has become increasingly concerned with all of the following except _____.
societies isolated in time and space
(1. people in motion such as migrants and refugees
2. differences in power within and among cultures
3. diversity within cultures and societies
4. flows of technology, images, and information)
The genre of anthropological writing in which the ethnographer-writer puts her or his own feelings and reactions to a field situation right in the text is known as _____.
Why has the American Anthropological Association spoken out against the Pentagon's Human Terrain System?
The program interferes with the anthropologist's obligation to do no harm.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between anthropology and sociology is false?
Anthropology is interested in behavior, but sociology is interested in social organization.
(1. To begin with, anthropology focused on small, non-literate societies, but sociology focused on industrial societies.
2. Around 1900 anthropology and sociology were basically only one academic field of study.
3. Anthropological research traditionally involves engagement in the daily life of another culture, but sociology seeks to gather a mass of quantifiable data.
4. Today both anthropology and sociology utilize statistical research.)
The genealogical method is important to ethnographic research because _____.
it collects data that are essential to reconstructing history and understanding current social relations
Which of the following statements about an interview schedule is true?
Using an interview schedule interviewers can pursue interesting leads.
(1. Like questionnaires, respondents can fill in the answers of an interview schedule.
2. Interview schedules avoid sampling a population.
3. An interview schedule sets up times to interview key cultural consultants.
4. Interview schedules are convenient tools to mail to respondents.)
Bronislaw Malinowski is well known for _____.
seeking the emic perspective
Key cultural consultants are an important part of ethnographic research because they _____.
can provide the most complete or useful information about particular aspects of life
Which of the following is a significant change in ethnography?
Larger numbers of ethnographies are being done about people in Western, industrialized nations.
Which of the following would not be an example of participant-observation?
interviewing a key cultural consultant
(1. becoming a godfather
2. offering rides to the doctor
3. drinking a toast at a wedding
4. sailing with local fisherman)
Unlike ethnography, survey research _____.
is conducted with little or no personal contact between study subjects and researchers
The perspective of the cultural insider is called the _____.
According to the anthropological code of ethics, which of the following is false?
It is acceptable for anthropologists to manipulate the communities they study as long as the research adds to understanding of human cultural diversity.
(1. Parties in the host country should be informed about the purposes and impact of the research.
2. Informed consent should be obtained from anyone who provides information for the research.
3. Informed consent should be obtained from anyone who might be affected by the research.
4. An anthropologist's primary ethical obligation is to do no harm to the people being studied.)
Culture shock is _____.
a feeling of alienation that occurs when we encounter strange cultural cues
Interpretive anthropologists such as Clifford Geertz _____.
view cultures as meaningful texts that natives constantly "read" and ethnographers must decipher
Anthropological research directed at investigating a specific question is called _____.
Which of the following is true about dialects?
We rank speech patterns as better or worse primarily because we rank the groups that use them as better or worse.
Which of the following is true about nonverbal communication?
Body movements communicate social differences.
Utilizing Pierre Bourdieu's idea of symbolic capital, which of the following statements is false?
The educational system corrects society's biases against poor speech.
(1. Our speech habits help determine our access to employment.
2. People who do not use the prestige dialect still accept its correctness.
3. Proper use of language is a path to wealth, prestige, and power.
4. Proper language is legitimized by media)
All of the following are true of the language abilities of apes except _____.
apes have shown the ability to invent language in the wild
Which of the following statement about the concept of a universal grammar is false?
A universal grammar includes all of the grammatical rules of the world's languages.
(1. The fact that people can learn foreign languages supports the idea of a universal grammar.
2. The idea of a universal grammar was proposed by Noam Chomsky.
3. The fact that people can translate from one language to another supports the idea of a universal grammar.
4. Creole languages lend support to the idea of a universal grammar.)
Super Bowl, touchdown, tailback, wide out, and referee would be examples of _____.
The arrangement and order of words and phrases and sentences is called _____.
Kottak counters the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis by suggesting that _____.
changes in culture produce changes in language
Which of the following statements about animal call systems is false?
Two calls can be combined to produce a more complex warning.
(1. Animals produce a certain call as the result of a specific stimulus.
2. Call systems consist of only a limited number of sounds.
3. Call systems use the voice.
4. Calls are automatic.)
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that _____.
the grammatical categories of different languages lead their speakers to think about things in particular ways
The original language from which a language evolves is called _____.
Which of the following is true about language loss?
Indigenous languages are disappearing at the rate of two per month.
The fact that salesmen in higher-class stores in New York were more likely to pronounce their r's than salesmen in lower-class stores in William Labov's study shows that _____.
employers practiced sociolinguistic discrimination
All of the following are true of language except _____.
spoken language began about 6,000 years ago
(1. human language systems are different from the communication systems of other animals
2. language depends upon an arbitrary relationship between words and the things they stand for
3. language is our primary means of communication
4. language is a part of culture)
Which of the following statements about Black English Vernacular (BEV) is false?
Standard English (SE) is superior to BEV as a linguistic system.
(1. The syntax of BEV is similar to that of southern English.
2. Linguists regard ebonics (BEV) as a dialect of English rather than a separate language.
3. The sounds BEV are similar to those of southern English.
4. Linguists disagree about the origins of BEV.)
The ability to talk about something that is not present is a characteristic of languages called _____.
In the words bat, cat, mat, hat, rat, and fat the b, c, m, h, r, and f are different _____.
When the speech of women and men is compared, there are differences in all of the following except _____.
4. body stance)
Linguistic diversity within a nation is affected by all of the following except _____.
(1. cultural differences
2. socioeconomic differences
3. social situations
4. geographical differences)
The scientific study of the structure of a spoken language is called _____.
With balanced reciprocity, a person _____.
gives and expects something in return, which may not come immediately, but the giver will be upset if the person who received the gift does not reciprocate the exchange
The means of production refers to _____.
the major productive resources of an economy including the land, labor, technology, and capital
practice slash-and-burn techniques
Western economists typically make all of the following assumptions except _____.
that people's economic goal may be to maximize prestige or social harmony
(1. that producers and consumers make rational choices
2. that consumers are motivated by the best value
3. that our resources are scarce
4. that our wants are infinite)
Globalization has resulted in all of the following among the Betsileo except ______________.
believing that they now have all they need
Alienation occurs when _____.
laborers work to produce for an employer's profit
Which of the following statements about foraging is false?
Foraging thrives in southern Africa today.
(1. The aborigines of California and the Pacific Northwest were foragers.
2. The one essential feature shared by all foragers is that they rely on nature for their food.
3. Foraging survives mainly in environments too difficult for farming.
4. All modern foragers live within nation-states.)
Which of the following statements about negative reciprocity is false?
Negative reciprocity cannot be practiced by a society that already practices generalized reciprocity.
(1. Negative reciprocity involves the attempt to get something for as little as possible.
2. Stealing is an extreme form of negative reciprocity.
3. Negative reciprocity usually involves dealing with people outside or on the fringes of your social system.
4. Silent trade is an example of negative reciprocity.)
Band-level societies have all of the following characteristics except ________.
(1. egalitarian social structure
2. a foraging adaptive strategy
3. division of labor based on gender
4. mechanisms of social control)
All of the following are environmental effects of intensive agriculture except ___________.
increased environmental diversity
2. increased environmental uniformity
3. concentration of organic wastes)
Agriculture is characterized by all of the following except _____.
the use of a fallow period
(1. irrigation systems
2. intensive cultivation
3. the use of terraces
4. the use of domestic animals)
What is a replacement fund?
the time and energy devoted to maintaining items essential to production
Cultural ecologists interpret the potlatch ceremonies of the natives of the Pacific Northwest as _____.
a way of dealing with periods of abundance and shortage
An understanding of adaptive strategies is important for all of the following reasons except _____.
they allow creating a typology of cultural adaptation to change
(1. they explain the reason for cultural similarities between unrelated societies
2. they allow creating a classification system of different kinds of societies
3. they provide an explanation for different kinds of economies
4. they explain the relationship between food production and a certain type of society)
With which kind of reciprocity is something given and nothing is expected in return?
Which of the following statements about agriculturalists is true?
They use their land intensively and continuously.
What is the market principle?
the use of money to buy and sell things at prices determined by supply and demand
Which of the following statements about economics is false?
Workers in non-industrial societies do not identify personally with the products they produce.
(1. Economics is the study of the production, distribution, and consumption of resources.
2. Division of labor according to age and gender is a cultural universal.
3. Women factory workers in Malaysia illustrate the concept of alienation.
4. Some societies assign a major role in production to women.)
The mode of production refers to _____.
the way in which production is organized
Which of the following statements fails to characterize peasants?
Peasants use many of the same technologies as modern farmers.