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thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Attacking the person
it is perfectly acceptable to argue against other people's positions or to attack their arguements
Appealing to false authority
citing authorities, such as experts in a field or the opinions of qualified researchers, can offer valuable support for an arguement
Jumping on a bandwagon
sometimes we are more likely to believe something if a lot of other people believe it
Assuming something is true
even in science, few things are ever proved completely false, but evidence can be discredited
Falling victim to false cause
we make the assumption that just because one event followed another, the first event must have caused the second, this reasoning is the basis for many superstitions
Making hasty generalizations
reaching a conclusion based on the opinion of one source is like figuring that all the marbles in the barrel are green after pulling out only one
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