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What vessel has the lowest pressure?

vena cava

Where does the systemic circulation come from in the heart?

left side of heart ventricle

where does pulmonary circuit come from?

right ventricle

What is the function of endocardium?

integrity, impulse conduction

what is the function of epicardium

regulate homeostasis

What is another name for visceral pericardium?


what do mesothelial cells look like

flattened pavement like
use wright stain

What are intercalated disks?

in between cardiac cells- adhering junction and gap junctions

What is the annuli fibrosi?

the 4 fibrous rings from which the valve leaflets originate
provide anchor for valve leaflets

What is the trigona fibrosa?

the 2 structures that join annuli fibrosi

What is an os cordis?

bones of the heart from animals like cattle

What are the layers of the heart valve

spongiosa (loose collagenous and elastic)
Fibrosa- fibrous extensions, collagenous support
Ventricularis- dense CT

What are the fibrous threadlike cords in the free edge of the AV node?

Chordae tendinae

What is the order of autorhythmicity?

SA, AV, Bundle of His, Bundle branches, purkinje fibers

what is unique about the node muscle of the heart?

no intercalated discs

do purkinje fibers conduct things faster or slower than muscle cells?

faster (4x)

What do purkinje fibers contain lots of?


Where is internal elastic lamina found?

evident in arteries and some arterioles

What is the inner layer of vessels?

tunica intima

What is in the tunica media?

helically arranged layers of smooth muscle, elastin fibers, collagen, proteoglycans to external elastic lamina

What is the outer most layer of vessels?

tunica adventitia
longitudinally arranged connective tissue

What is the vasa vasorum

the network of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the outer portions of large vessels

What is the function of the tunica media?

regulates vessel compliance with number of elastic fibers, contractile state of smooth muscles

What does the venule lack that the other veins have?

tunica adventitia

What are the elastic arteries? 6

aorta, pulmonary artery, common iliac, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavain

What are examples of medium/muscluar arteries?

brachial, anterior tibial, coronary

what stain can help differentiate muscular arteries from elastic arteries?

orcein, van giosen, Verhoeff

do arterioles have internal elastic lamina? adventitia?


What is the thickest part of a large vein?

the tunica adventita

How do continuous capillaries transport substances?

through pinocytotic vesicles and caveolae

Where are fenestrated capillaries present?

Kidney glomerulus, intestinal villi, chorid plexus

Where are sinusoidal capillaries present?

liver, bone marrow, spleen

What is a portal system

vein or arteriole interposed between two capillary networks

where do lymphatic vessels drain?

into large veins eventually lymph nodes

What do lymphatic capillaries lack?

tight junctions, makes them more permeable

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