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AMH 2010 Final
Terms in this set (39)
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by John Adams during the summer of 1798, the acts severely restricted immigration into the US and gave the president power to deport anyone thought to be dangerous. They also made it harder for new immigrants to vote.
American Colonization Society
A society of antislavery whites, founded in 1816 by Presbyterian minister Robert Finley. They advocated the return of freed slaves to Africa. In 1830 transported its first free African American settlers to Liberia, the West African colony. Around 2500 blacks were sent to Liberia during the years of the civil war.
Dominion of New England
A union of English colonies imposed by the English Monarchy, Created by James II. It united 8 colonies from New England to New Jersey under Gov. Edmund Andros. The dominion was unacceptable to most colonist because it represented centralized control. Edmund Andros goals were to increase control over trade and have better military defense against France.
Election of 1800
This was between Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson and Federalist John Adams in which each side believed that victory by the other would ruin the nation. It was won by Thomas Jefferson. This election is also often referred to as the Revolution of 1800. The election at first ended up being a tie, however, between Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr since there was no distinction between president and vice president. Alexander Hamilton ironically helped Thomas Jefferson win the election, stating he was the lesser of the two evils. Its the first time in history you have a peaceful transfer of power to another party.
Embargo Act (1807)
This was established in the year 1807 by Thomas Jefferson as a result from Deteriorating Relations with Britain and France during the Napoleonic wars. The act cuts off all foreign trade and helped Federalists make a comeback during presidential elections. It was repealed in 1809 and replaced by the Non-intercourse Act.
Leader of the Whig party and unsuccessful presidential candidate 5 times. He played a central role on the stage of national politics for over 40 years. He was the Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams and was also a huge influence for Adams getting elected president during the election of 1824. He served as speaker of house, and came up with an economic program called "The American System." He was called "The Great Compromiser" due to the influences he had on the Missouri Compromise 1820, the Tariff Compromise of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850.
German immigrant, who came over to America in May 1750. He was a well educated school teacher. Wrote "Journey to Pennsylvania" which discussed how horrible the ships were to get to the new world. He also explained how many immigrants were tricked and treated unfair once arriving into the new world.
This was a meeting of both moderate and radical Federalists, who were opposed to the war against Great Britain and Democratic-Republican policies in general. They discussed what the ways forward would be, talks of secession, and specific policy proposals like getting rid of the 3/5 compromise, and limiting presidents to one term. It helped cause the death of the Federalist party after news of the victory at New Orleans due to the Federalist seeming unpatriotic.
Led the campaign to convert Indians in New England to Christianity. He fought against the Indian slave trade that arose during King Phillips war. He founded separate towns for baptized Indians in the 1650's and published a bible in Algonquian in the early 1660s.
King Phillips War
Started by the hanging of 3 Wanaponoags. Became the bloodiest conflict in Anglo-American history. Christian Indians helped New England win the war. Indian slave trade arose during the war. John Eliot became a very influential individual towards trying to stop the Indian slave trade during this time.
Occurred in 1832 during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, where the Nullification Convention met. The convention declared that tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and unenforceable within the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833. They believed attempts to use force to collect the taxes would lead to the state's secession. The South hates these tariffs because it hurts their trade with Great Britain. It also forces the south to settle for lower qualities with Northern goods. Gets resolved by Andrew Jackson threatening to send troops into South Carolina.
Olive Branch Petition
Sent over to George III by congress in 1775. It was a final attempt to avoid a full on war between Great Britain and the 13 colonies. However, it was not successful and the revolutionary war started soon after. It shows that many colonist in the United States truly did not want to go to war with Great Britain.
Founded the providence (Rhode Island), where he established the principle of separation of church and state in English America. Enjoyed great relations with Indians and encouraged them to fight in the Pequot Wars. He has a University in Bristol named after him.
Stephen F Austin
He was the son of Moses Austin, and they would become the most important among several founders of private colonies in Texas. After his father died, he took up the plan to settle 300 families along the Brazos River. He allowed settlers to bring slaves into Texas as long as they were officially classified as indentured servants. He was one of the most influential individuals toward Texas gaining independence. He is known as "The Father of Texas."
Caused by offers of sanctuary in Florida. Occurred in 1739 and It was the largest and bloodiest slave revolt in British North America history, it was within a British colony of South Carolina. The slaves were baptized Catholics. 20 whites and over 35 blacks were killed.
Founder of the state of Pennsylvania and also a early quacker. He had good relations with the Indians and was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.
Name given to a scandal caused by French diplomats demanding bribes from American diplomats, leading to a rise in tensions between the United States and France in the year 1797. Led to a undeclared war called the Quasi-War. This also lead to President John Adams establishing the Alien and Sedition Acts during the summer of 1798.
First Continental Congress
This was a meeting of Delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies. It was called in response to the intolerable acts by the British Parliament to punish Massachusetts for the Boston tea party. First form of US government that didn't involve Britain and eventually they created the Articles of Confederation.
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay wanted one final compromise that would solve all issues related to slavery. Congressional measures created to resolve a series of regional tensions in the United States. The measures admitted California as a free state, organized the remainder of the New Mexico Territory, banned the slave trade in the district of Columbia, empowered the Treasury to assume Texas debts from its independence struggle with Mexico, and gave the South a much stronger federal Fugitive Slave act. This compromise became possible after the sudden death of President Zachary Taylor.
Second Great Awakening
Religious movement of the early 19th century that echoed the Great Awakening of the 1730s. The movement linked evangelical Christians on both sides of the Atlantic to exchange ideas and strategies that inspired a broad set of social, cultural, and Economic changes. Due to so many of these ideas and changes being made within the US, this promotes religious anxieties of many people to want to change society.
The Know-Nothing Party/Movement
Anti-foreign, anti-catholic political organization established in 1854 and consisting of a network of secret fraternal associations. Largely a Nativist reaction against large scale European immigration. The organization's name stemmed from its secrecy; When the members were asked about the organization, they would deny knowledge of it, saying they "knew nothing." It helps further weaken the Whig party.
Fugitive Slave Act
Reestablished in 1850 as a result from the Compromise of 1850. Congressional act that required all escaped slaves, upon capture, be returned to their masters and that citizens of free states had to cooperate. Federal judges appointed "commissioners" to hear cases of accused fugitives and required the active complicity of state officers. It punished anyone who helped the slaves.
Stephen Douglas wanted to open up the Nebraska territory to farming. Established in 1854, Congressional act that repealed the Missouri Compromise. The bill's new policy of "Popular Sovereignty" intended to allow settlers in their territory to decide the status of slavery, initiated a strenuous debate about the future of slavery in the Western Territories. Also lead to an incident called "Bleeding Kansas," where violence erupted between individuals who were for and against the act.
Uncle Toms Cabin
Wrote by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852. Sentimental novel about the barbarism of slavery and the redemptive power of Christianity. Created many common stereotypes of African Americans. It was a powerful tool of abolitionism.
He served in the army for almost 4 decades and became a full fledged war hero through his service during the Mexican war in 1846. He was elected president in the year 1848 and the last presidential member of the Whig Party. He clashed with congress over the desire to admit California to the Union as a free state. He eventually fell ill and died while in office during the year 1850
It was founded in the year 1854 by anti slavery activists, modernizers. Wanted no slavery in the territories. Ex whig's helped the most with the creation of the republican party after the Whig party collapsed. It was mainly formed to stop the extension of slavery into Kansas and Nebraska territories by the proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act. John C. Fermont was the first candidate that the republicans had run in the year 1856 and while he was unsuccessful in victory, the party was still able to win 11 northern states and two-fifths of the electoral vote. Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican candidate to win the election in 1860 and the party remained the victorious party over a majority of the elections until 1933.
Term used to describe the period of violence during the settling of the Kansas territory. It was over the Kansas-Nebraska Act overturning the Missouri Compromise as the boundary between slave and free territory. Pro slavery and free state settlers flooded into Kansas to try and influence the decision which eventually led to violence. Abolitionist were lead by John Brown.
Phrase coined in 1845, expressed the philosophy that drove 19th century US territorial expansion. Held that the US was destined by God, Its advocates believed, to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across the entire North American continent. Played a very crucial role within the Texas Revolution, Oregon, and Mexican-American war. Many Americans were not on board with this because they believed it could be viewed as taking peoples land.
Martin Van Buren
He served as vice president under Andrew Jackson. He was the first president to be born as a citizen in the United States and was elected in the year 1836. Due to a financial panic and a costly war fought during his administration with the Seminole Indians, he lost his reelection bid to Harrison in 1840. He failed to gain the presidential nomination in 1844 after his refusal to endorse the annexation of Texas.
Northern leader of the Democratic Party and champion of the Transcontinental Railroad, sought to pacify the slavery conflict by organizing territory under the banner of what he called "Popular Sovereignty." This would have left the decision for or against slavery up to the people present in a territory when it voted for organization. Helped engineer the removal of the Missouri Compromise which came to be known as the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He was a huge influence in the passing of the Compromise of 1850. He was known as "The little giant" due to how short he was.
First American Philosophical movement in the 1820s and 1830s. Key figures were Ralph Emerson, Henry Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. There values were purity of the individual; Corrupting societal institutions, finding god in nature, and by contemplating nature, we can understand reality. One key tension was corrupting societal institutions vs advocating for political change
Free Soil Party
Established in 1848, ran presidential candidates in 1848 (Martin Van Buren) and 1852 (John Hale). Their motto was "Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men." They were not concerned with moral arguments but with practical effects for white workers. They opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Eventually disbanded, along with the Whig Party and the two helped form the Republican party in 1854. While the Wilmot Proviso was a failed concept, it was a direct antecedent to the Free Soil Party. They were against slavery expanding in the west, however, it was mostly due to the competition that the black labors gave them, whether free or slave.
An abolitionist from the east, perpetrated one of the most infamous such episodes from the newspapers when he and his sons attacked a family of pro slavery settlers along Pottawatomie creek, hacking them to death with broad swords. He was the leader of a small group of volunteers during "bleeding Kansas." He led a raid at Harpers Ferry to start a movement among slaves their but was captured by US Marines led by Robert E lee. He was eventually found guilty and hanged for his crimes.
The first abolitionist senator and Republican, who In response to the attack on Lawrence, Massachusetts, took to the Senate floor for a two day speech titled "The Crime Against Kansas." Since the speech mocked one of South Carolina's senators, Democratic congressman Preston Brooks, attacked Sumner in the Senate and beat him into unconsciousness with his walking stick. This shows the deterioration of violence between the north and south.
William Loyd Garrison
Became an Abolitionist in 1830 at the age of 25; Founded an anti slavery newspaper called The Liberator. The American Anti Slavery Society was founded with Garrisons support in 1833. He was attacked by a Boston mob in 1833. Many in the south even had a bounty on his head and wanted him dead or alive. He publicly burned a copy of the Constitution in 1854.
He was an enslaved African American man in the US who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott vs Sandford case of 1857. It was known as the Dred Scott case, justice Roger B Taney wrote the majority opinion, ruling that Scott lacked the standing to bring the case and consequently dismissed it. Dred Scott believed that due to his time living in Wisconsin territory, where slavery was illegal, he should be able to obtain his freedom. The Dred Scott vs Sandford case was what helped declare the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
Was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig party in 1852. He served on active duty as a general longer than any other person in American History. He became a national hero after the Mexican-American war. He served as commanding general of the Army from 1841-1861. His method of a coastal blockade and utilization of river systems eventually helped defeat the Confederates during the Civil War.
Was designed to eliminate slavery within the land acquired as a result of the Mexican War. Fearing the addition of a pro-slavery territory, Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot promosed this amendment to President Polk's bill which sought the appropriation of 2 million. This enflamed the growing controversy over slavery and helped bring about the formation of the Republican party in 1854.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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